Transposing emblem by Talia Stotts

If you were to travel back in time to the mid-20th century, you would notice a lot of key differences from the way life is lived today. You might note the lack of cellphones and computers; you might be surprised by the number of newspapers being read and friendly conversations in the streets. You might notice a distinctly segregated way of life with regards to race. Or it might even just be the clothes people wear that give you the most pause.

Whatever you might notice, the 1950s were very different from where we are currently in 2019. Even so, those years of long ago are still heralded as the “good old days” for whatever nostalgic reason people may find. However, it is the expectation of the family dynamic of those times that causes some of the greatest polarization among citizens in America today.

New York, America – Headed home – Martin Adams

The middle of the 20th century established family expectations for a generation. The nation had just participated in two world wars and people were getting back on their feet. Women no longer had to work while their husbands were across the globe fighting in battles, and it seemed like a time to really get settled with the ultimate goal: a stable family life.

Those raised in that generation saw the nuclear family as the norm: a stay-at-home mother, a working father, and several children at home. Men worked hard during the day and returned to their loving family in the evening, to be greeted by a loving wife with a kiss on the cheek and the smell of a hot dinner waiting for them on the stove. Children were called in from playing outside to join for a family dinner, and then they were sent off to bed with a kiss on the forehead from mother and father.

Denton, America – Texan sunset – Monica Bourgeau

This idyllic scene is not foreign to many people in America, especially the older generation. However, it is this way of life that has become impossible for many younger Americans to uphold. With a rise in the cost of living and an inadequate rise in wages, it has become incredibly impractical for many families to survive on only one income. This leads to many mothers being taken away from the home to join the workforce to simply make ends’ meet. Those families that are trying to partake in the traditional family life of years gone by have found that it is an unfeasible goal, simply because of finances.

This, however, only considers those families that have followed the traditional family path. But it is important to recognize that there is a growing number of people who do not wish to partake in that way of life to begin with. Consider for a moment the fact that the current younger generations are not getting married or seeking family life at all. This can again be connected to the lack of financial stability that is available. Many Millennials, for example, cite the fact that they cannot in good conscience start a family when they are struggling to feed themselves from day to day.

Los Angeles, America – Venice Beach – Joe Cooke

Aside from financial concerns, many young people are shunning traditional family values due to ethical reasons. The planet’s population is growing immensely, far faster than the earth can provide resources. With the impending doom that comes along with climate change, it seems unreasonable to bring in more human beings to use up the earth’s limited resources when we are finding it difficult to make sure everyone is taken care of as it is. In the United States especially, many young people are refusing to get married and start families as long as the environment is in danger from overuse and outright abuse.

New York, America – Preparing – Sai De Silva

On the other hand, there are still many people who are focused and able to get married and have a family that more closely resembles that of “the good old days.” However, these families do have some substantial differences that, while they appear ideal to many nowadays, would make the nuclear family of the 50s and 60s cringe.

With the LGBTQ movement gaining traction in recent years, and legality in America, many gay and lesbian couples are able to realize their dream of becoming parents and having a home life similar to that of their parents and grandparents. With the popularity of adoption, sperm and egg donors, and surrogacy, couples who are not able to biologically create children together may still participate in the conventional family life made popular sixty years ago. While they may technically be living the nuclear family dream, because the parents are of the same gender, they face a lot of pushback from older generations that see them as faux families.

Texas, America – Focal point – Ayo Ogunseinde

Adoption itself has been a great help for those wishing to have a family but for some reason are unable, and it isn’t uncommon to see a family that consists of people of all races and backgrounds. Additionally, foster families are also making do with what is available to them to participate in more traditional family values, if they are unable to otherwise for whatever reason.

Batesville, America – In the band – Jordan Whitt

Finally, another way that polarization is presented between the old-fashioned family and the new one, is the growing popularity of chosen single motherhood. Out of necessity or choice, many women are focusing on their careers and their own financial independence. While this is helpful for the women as individuals, it is not conducive to forming a relationship, getting married, and having children. Instead, many women take it upon themselves to decide when to become a mother, whether or not they have a partner in their life. With a sperm donor, the woman may choose IVF or a surrogate to bear the child. While this is seen as empowering to many women, a large number of people in the older generations look on it as a bastardization of the typical family life they were raised with.

New York, America – Rush hour – Nicolai Berntsen

Despite the fact that there are thousands of people who are attempting to replicate the old-fashioned family, it is clear that there will always be some amount of polarization between them and those who have actually lived it. Americans who have experienced the nuclear family when it was the norm may fail to recognize that the country has changed – society, the economy, education, and personal values have all affected the choices people are making in regard to creating their own personal family. And even though many people may continue to insist that their way is right, it has become clear in the last couple of decades that there is no wrong or right way to have a family, and it is ultimately up to those participating in a given family to decide what it should look like.

Talia Stotts

Credits

Snapshot 1: Colorado, America – Alone – Lionello DelPiccolo (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: New York, America – Headed home – Martin Adams (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Denton, America – Texan sunset – Monica Bourgeau (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Los Angeles, America – Venice Beach – Joe Cooke (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: New York, America – Preparing – Sai De Silva (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Texas, America – Focal point – Ayo Ogunseinde (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Batesville, America – In the band – Jordan Whitt (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: New York, America – Rush hour – Nicolai Berntsen (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Stevan Milivojevic

History of LGBTIQ activism in Croatia

The LGBTIQ community in Croatia became visible, in an informal self-organizing sense, during the 1980s. Along with Slovenia, this made it one of the first countries with LGBTIQ activism in the Balkans region. The legal position of LGBTIQ people in Croatia changed several years before the official activist initiatives, after changes to the constitution were adopted as part of the judicial reforms and the transference of power from the federal level to the republic level. These reforms, which took place in 1974, amended the federal penal code, and by doing so, regulated the decriminalization of same sex relations.

Pula, Croatia – The rock beach – David Boca

Later on, during the Croatian War, most of the LGBTIQ community was part of the feminist, peace and green groups, joining the anti-war campaign. It was during this time, in 1992, that the first formal gay and lesbian group was officially established, called “LIGMA – Lesbian and Gay Action.” Even though, during the war, the group did not have the opportunity to improve the quality of life of the LGBTIQ community, it still achieved significant results by publishing “Speak out,” the first lesbian and gay magazine in Croatia.

In 1998, the parliament of Croatia voted to adopt amendments to the Penal Code. At the request of the government, the age limit for consensual sexual relations was set to 14 years of age, and it was independent of sexual orientation.

Senj, Croatia – At the Adriatic Sea – Daan Koeg

Fast forward a couple of years, and we are in 2002, with big changes having come to Croatia, such as the first Pride Parade held in Zagreb, the Croatian capital. The Pride Parade itself, although considered successful, was met with strong opposition and disapproval by counter protesters. The Pride Parade was described by activists as a true test of Croatian democracy and it really was exactly that. Some would say that the democratic test was passed, considering the fact that the Pride Parade was held, despite opposition. On the other hand, activists were aware that a public event, such as the Pride Parade, would reveal the full scope of hatred and negative attitudes towards the LGBTIQ community in Croatian society. This opposition and the polarized opinions on the LGBTIQ community will later on become a common characteristic in all the countries of the former Yugoslavian region, some of which have needed until 2019 to take first steps such as the Pride Parade.

Yet Croatia, even though its LGBTIQ community was among the first to work together and self-organize, with decades of activist traditions, still hasn’t fully accepted the LGBTIQ community, and sexual orientation and gender identity remain polarizing topics for many Croatians.

Rovinj, Croatia – At Mulini beach – Yurasov Valery

Modern day situation

Not long after 2002 when the first Pride Parade was held in Zagreb, the LGBTIQ community used the receptive political climate and pushed for the first cases of positive legislation. In 2003, same sex couples were recognized in the eyes of the law for the first time, through the adoption of the law on same sex partnerships. The law remained in force for several years, but it had only regulated the economic side of same sex partnerships. Over time, the LGBTIQ community understood its insufficiencies and started working towards the adoption of new legislation, which would make same sex and opposite sex couples more equal before the law.

However, the opposition to the liberal ideas in Croatia once again reared its ugly head, and this time it acted swiftly. Even though most of the country, civil society organizations and LGBTIQ activists expected some form of opposition, no one foresaw the level of organization and mobilization they witnessed.

Zagreb, Croatia – At Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T

A conservative group called “In the Name of the Family,” as it declared in its public statements, recognized that the adoption of a more inclusive same sex partnership law would inevitably end up fully equating same sex partnerships to traditional marriage. This, according to “In the Name of the Family,” was a step too far and needed to be stopped immediately. Therefore, this group initiated a public campaign for a referendum, with the goal of amending the constitution by adding further clarification and defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman.

This would, in the words of the aforementioned group, bring an end to all the effort by LGBTIQ organizations to undermine family values and destroy the sanctity of marriage.

Zagreb, Croatia – Crossing Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T

The initiative was cheered by many within Croatian society, revealing how deep division on the topic goes. On one side, liberal groups advocated for the rejection of the campaign, claiming that a call for a referendum on the topic of human rights represents a violation of human rights in itself. The campaign organized numerous events with the slogan “How would you feel if 4 million people decide on your life.” Even though, opponents of the referendum had the support of numerous public figures, the campaign in favor of it had the backing of the Catholic Church.

Considering the fact that around 90% of Croatians self-identify as Catholics, the leaders of the Catholic Church mobilized numerous activists and made an enormous effort on behalf of the “Yes” group, gathering 750,000 signatures, many more than needed, for the holding of the referendum. In 2014 it took place with the question “Do you agree that marriage is matrimony between a man and a woman.” After the results came in, it was obvious that a far smaller number of people actually participated than expected, but the results were clear: 65% of the participants voted “Yes,” thus marking a major victory for the conservative initiative backed by the Catholic Church.

Dubrovnik, Croatia – The medieval center – Daan Kloeg

Despite the referendum taking place, the Croatian government presented the final draft of the Law on Life Partnerships of Same Sex Couples, which was adopted by a clear majority in the Croatian parliament on July 15, 2014. The law encoded the equal treatment of same sex unions to opposite sex unions in all regards, except the fact that it does not allow the adoption of children in same sex unions.

Both the “Yes” and “No” campaigns have revealed the polarization of opinion among the Croatian people when it comes to the topic of LGBTIQ rights. Although LGBTIQ individuals have been in the Croatian public sphere for three decades, it has become obvious that it is hard to change deeply rooted opinions and attitudes when they are supported by official religious institutions. That is why Croatia and the rest of the Balkan nations still have polarized attitudes on numerous questions, not just the matters of sexual orientation or gender identity. It cannot be said that changes have not happened, they have. But those positive changes will always remain reversible if actions are perceived to be too swift, and polarized attitudes are neglected or not addressed.

Stevan Milivojevic

Credits

Snapshot 1: Split, Croatia – Merging – Alana Harris (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Pula, Croatia – The rock beach – David Boca (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Senj, Croatia – At the Adriatic Sea – Daan Koeg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Rovinj, Croatia – At Mulini beach – Yurasov Valery (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Zagreb, Croatia – At Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Zagreb, Croatia – Crossing Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Dubrovnik, Croatia – The medieval center – Daan Kloeg (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Esmonde Cole

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Aura De Los Santos

The Dominican Republic is a country located in the Caribbean. It has a lot of future potential thanks to a number of resources and a great location. Resources may help stimulate the economy, but tourism is one of our weapons, as our kindness and good treatment of visitors ensures excellent service.

While it is true that many positive aspects of our country can be highlighted, when we dig deeper into the reality that is lived day by day, we can see that the differences and the present struggles people have are quite serious. The differences are very noticeable. Visiting one part of the country and seeing the luxury that surrounds it is impressive, but it is sad to go to one of the poorest neighborhoods and witness the little access they have to basic services that every citizen should enjoy. Here we begin to see a part that many people have little or no knowledge of.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Crossing – Aleksei Denisov

When we talk about social inequality, studies have shown that it has increased in recent years. Why has this happened? Where is all the growth the country has had economically? This is one of the most critical issues that our island faces. The majority of the population only accounts for 7% of the country’s wealth, while 30% belongs to the richest – something very distorted, right? We can see that not enough work is being done to eliminate the disparities that exist and create a more egalitarian society.

It is true that, over the years, few efforts have been made to provide a more satisfactory standard of living for all citizens, but not everything is negative and we must also highlight the good work that has been done in other areas of Dominican society.

Higuey, Dominican Republic – One the street – Mariusz Switulski

In 2013, the Dominican Republic obtained the long-awaited 4% increase in spending for education. Something the people claimed was necessary for the improvement of the education conditions for students. The government has an obligation to provide high-quality education until high school, and this increase was supposed to help with resources and staffing. The increase has also ensured that not only the middle and upper class would benefit from better educational conditions, but every student would gain the right to have good school supplies, classrooms with the equipment every school needs and well-prepared teachers to provide high-quality instruction to the students.

Higuey, Dominican Republic – Coconuts – Mariusz Switulski

Furthermore, not only students benefited from the increase in funding, but also parents and founders of informal businesses, because the creation of a large number of educational facilities in each part of the country, in cities and neighborhoods, helped the private economy establish nearby businesses like coffee shops, computer centers and transport stations; it allowed parents to have greater mobility because the funding also extended to daycare, causing them to have less worries about what to do with their children when they have to work. In this respect, people who did not have the opportunity to go to school also benefited. A plan was created to ensure the literacy of the entire population and to this day it continues to produce good results.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Lifestyle – Aleksei Denisov

Definitely, we can ignore this great work our government has done for the improvement of education, which is a transformative weapon and which everyone is entitled to, without exception. This was achieved thanks to the outcries in a country that seeks improvement for each of its citizens.

This is one of the struggles we have won as a country. Every day we become more aware that we must work to obtain greater benefits so that we can all live a more dignified life. This is one of the many battles that remain for a significant improvement.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Waiting – Aleksei Denisov

Another crucial aspect of inequality present in our Dominican society has been the issue of immigration. Many Dominicans dream of leaving the country and being in places like the United States or some parts of Europe, with the goal of working to send money to their relatives on the island and giving them a better life. The work done by Dominican immigrants is not easy, but they have seen leaving the country as an option to provide greater stability for their family.

These cases are sad. Many have seen that the salary they had in the Dominican Republic did not let them meet the basic needs of their family and forced them to make the hard decision to leave. It’s not easy but someone has to do it.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – At the counter – Aleksei Denisov 

Several circumstances have caused people to describe being here as “every man for himself!” Everyone thinks individually and not in a collective way, something that has caused great damage to our country.

So what can be said about the current situation in the Dominican Republic? We still have to grow as citizens and learn to recognize the needs we have as a united country. We must learn to look beyond what is offered first and to determine what our people need. We have to realize that we are the country, and, as we fulfill our role, things will begin to change. Looking for a guilty party is not progress, but working and thinking about the welfare of the country as a whole, not of oneself, will be advantageous for all of us and usher in an age of prosperity.

Aura De Los Santos

Credits

Snapshot 1: Punta Cana, Dominican Republic – Rippled – Tim Mossholder (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Crossing – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Higuey, Dominican Republic – One the street – Mariusz Switulski (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Higuey, Dominican Republic – Coconuts – Mariusz Switulski (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Lifestyle – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Waiting – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – At the counter – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Kwasi Amankwah Awuah

Everyone is born into a family of some kind. Family, although widely accepted as a good and functional part of every society has its pros and cons. Extreme attachment to one’s family has consequences that I will try to discuss in this article.

The first family connection is made with the immediate family, usually called a nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father and siblings. This is where an individual’s values are greatly influenced. They are formed and nurtured here before any other system adds different ones through association or training. Sometimes a nuclear family can be incomplete, with one of the members never being available to the individual, but that is a discussion for another article.

Kumasi, Ghana – At the market – Anton Ivanov

As a wider circle within which the nuclear family exists, there is the extended family. This family is made up of members of the parents’ nuclear as well as extended families. Within a system of interlocking nuclear families, an extended family can be too large for an individual to keep track of. Grandparents, nephews, nieces, aunts, uncles, in-laws, etc. – the network for an extended family is a never-ending one.

Having touched on the two most common ones, I must mention the existence of society as a familial system. It is even said that a family is the basic unit of society, making it an extended family of some kind without blood relations. In a community or neighborhood, people join together to possess an identity. Moral values and behavioral patterns are vaguely agreed on to help shape members who grow within the society or to train those who intend to become a part of it later.

Elmina, Ghana – In motion – Anton Ivanov

I am a native of Ghana, West Africa, and know the importance of family within my cultural setting. There are over 100 ethnic groups in Ghana with even more clans and tribes associated with each.

An individual born into a family has a set of rules that are instilled in them regarding how to trace their family roots. No matter where you find yourself, even if born out of the country, you automatically become a member of your mom’s or dad’s family according to the familial system of your tribe. Ethnic groups differ in the type of familial systems practiced, with most being matrilineal or patrilineal. These systems entail complexities and bonds first to an ethnic group, then to the family of the parents and then to that of the nuclear family. In my society, the extended family system is so influential that it has more power over the body and property of a dead individual than the nuclear family. The extended family is said to own the individual.

Accra, Ghana – Scene from the market – Anton Ivanov

Comparing the family unit in the West to that of my cultural setting reveals a vast difference. In the West, America in this case, the family usually consists of the nuclear one. Apart from a few minority groups, most individuals are brought up with no sense of an extended family, and systems do not help with that either. Imagine the shock I got the first time I heard that a child could come from a different state than that of their mom or dad. “Really? You do not live where you were born?” I wondered, thinking about how this gave an individual no reason to trace the roots of either of their parents. Over time, the links to these family members from other states will weaken and break off, leaving generations after that individual with no idea of who they might actually be related to in other states.

It is necessary, however, to realize the importance of achieving a balanced approach to the familial system and allow it to influence our moral compass while guiding our actions.

Accra, Ghana – At the beach – Gerhard Pettersson

A strong sense of attachment to an individual’s family provides a sense of belonging to that family, especially when it is an illustrious one. This is seen in monarchies, among aristocrats and even with ethnic groups that consider themselves superior. A member in any of these lays claim to properties and privileges with little or no work, thus having a powerful support system as they chart their course through life.

The feelings connected to this are intense within Ghanaian society. You find a sense of responsibility attached to your actions and try not to “disgrace” the family you find yourself in, illustrious or not. This responsibility comes together with the privileges that the individual enjoys as being a member of that family.

Accra, Ghana – Bojo Beach – Danilo Marocchi

So it is not debatable when an individual is asked a favor for a family member. For example, a human resources manager in an institution is required by general family duties and responsibilities to make sure an unemployed member of their family gains entry into their institution without much difficulty. Generally, this situation is termed “who you know” in our cultural setting. Now, though this looks like a reasonable thing to do, we realize that it is ethically unfair to other job applicants and very disadvantageous to that institution if the employed family member lacks the necessary skills required for the job.

Not only in this instance, but in many other situations, we realize that individuals are heavily biased in decision-making, even in criminal situations where a law enforcer feels a greater sense of duty to the family or ethnicity than to the constitution they are supposed to enforce. Many people have been let off the hook after committing very heinous crimes just because the enforcer has a family connection of some kind to them.

Accra, Ghana – Street market – Nataly Reinch

This attachment can escalate to the point of disputes and violence, sometimes stemming out of ethnic tensions that existed even before most of those involved were born. As members of the family, they inherit the hate and spite towards other ethnic groups, and as a duty play their part in the clashes that ensue.

We then become aware that extreme attachment to the family should be influenced by other systems to build a functional society. Although such affiliation provides a sense of belonging and a support system for members, this same tool can be twisted to plant a seed of discourse that will wreak long-term havoc within the larger society.

Accra, Ghana – Drying fish – Atosan

In Ghana, the problem of attachment to the family before the country as a whole still exists and is revealed occasionally in ethnic disputes that break out. But there have been efforts aimed at making the younger generation become aware of belonging first to the country and then to the family.

The hope is that we will one day have a society that identifies with the country while richly displaying the diverse practices that come together to make it up. A society that understands that unity is not uniformity. A society that considers everyone equal as Ghanaians. A society that considers itself a family of Ghanaians and creates that sense of belonging.

Kwasi Amankwah Awuah

Credits

Snapshot 1: Ghana – A gray heron – Artem Avetisyan (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Kumasi, Ghana – At the market – Anton Ivanov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Elmina, Ghana – In motion – Anton Ivanov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Accra, Ghana – Scene from the market – Anton Ivanov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Accra, Ghana – At the beach – Gerhard Pettersson (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Accra, Ghana – Bojo Beach – Danilo Marocchi (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Accra, Ghana – Street market – Nataly Reinch (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Accra, Ghana – Drying fish – Atosan (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Mari Tammpuu

Anna

This is the only life I will ever have.

Klišee. But this thought haunts me night after night. Sometimes I wish I believed in god, so I could also believe in some sort of an afterworld, where I could start all over again. But as the studies say, Estonia is one of the least religious countries of all. And at least in this sense, I am a prime example of a typical Estonian, whether I like it or not.

I’m not saying I’ve had a hard life. We were poor for the first three years or so; the Soviet occupation had just ended, making for a newly independent state of theoretically infinite possibilities, but a whole lot of confusion in practice. Fresh out of university, my parents were desperate for jobs. And whatever they got, they worked hard at it. Overtime, weekend work – anything to get by.

Talinn, Estonia – Painting – Ethan Hu

They worked themselves up to the top, and I do think that’s something to be proud of. By the time I was old enough to remember, it was no longer about “getting by.” We had plenty of food on the table and I could have most of the new and shiny toys I wanted. But having mom and dad at home for dinner together, to play with these new shiny toys together? That was not something money could buy.

Sometimes I have the craziest thoughts. I learned to play the violin for eight years. One day, I’d be thinking of moving south, of meeting some wonderful people in Spain or Portugal or France, of starting a band, living as gypsies and busking around the warm, welcoming streets for a while. The next day, it’d be South America, travelling from farm to farm, doing honest manual labour in exchange for food and board. I’m a city girl, don’t know much about farm work, but surely I can learn.

Rohuneeme, Estonia – The end of the cape – Julius Jansson

Such are the thoughts that have given the term “millennial” a negative connotation. The dream of seeing more of the world than you do on one yearly week-long trip at a time may seem alien to our parents, unable to leave the country at all during the Soviet era. A reluctance to dedicate our lives solely to work is interpreted as reluctance to work at all. Entitled. Egoistlik. Lazy.

But is it a generational thing? Is it a universal gap between the young and the old? Is it wider in a post-Soviet country like Estonia, where the old often accuse the young of not valuing their freedom enough? All I know is that this gap sure feels like it is there when I talk to my parents. When we talk about freedom, we talk about different things. When we talk about happiness, we find its sources in different places.

Parnu, Estonia – A sunny summer day – Garijs Polskis

But maybe it’s not so much about our messages being different. Maybe, rather, it’s about getting them across. I was raised mostly by my grandma, so I haven’t had much practice in heart-to-hearts with mom and dad. It feels kind of like talking in catchphrases that you ought to use, rather than really sharing our thoughts. Maybe they also think that less work would have brought in less money, but more happiness? I guess I’ll never know for sure, as I’m afraid to ask, afraid to look like a characteristic millennial. All I know is that this is the only life I will ever have. Klišee. I’ll have to make sure that in the end, I don’t end up longing for another.

Talinn, Estonia – On the road – Silver Ringvee

Mairi

I’ve been working virtually my whole life. Scrubbing toilet floors after school at age 12 – I failed to see anything strange about it then, because it may have been tiresome and tedious, but it was the only way for the two of us, my mother and I, to get by.

I’m good at hard work. And when the Iron Curtain fell, work became something you could do not only to survive, but to be able to afford all sorts of other things. Beautiful clothes. Home appliances that exceeded the bare necessities. A new car, even a relatively luxurious new house. For the first time in my life, the doors were wide open: I could have it all if only I worked hard enough for it.

So I did. It was tough, to say the least. Although it was relatively easy to start a business, it was just as easy to suddenly lose it all. The regulatory environment for a new market economy was only beginning to form; social guarantees were not really guarantees at all; and many of my friends were well-off one day, but hopelessly out of a job the next. This was something I couldn’t afford with my newborn Anna to care for.

Tartu, Estonia – Finally – Jaanus Jagomägi

Three or four years passed. Out of the blue, my husband and I realized we could afford anything we needed – and more. Me? The pre-teen girl cleaning toilets to afford food? This, of course, added fuel to my idealization of our newfound freedom. I didn’t want to go back to insufferable poverty, to having to do whatever mundane work the state assigned to me. To being unable to travel outside the country – or even within it, for that matter. To not having time to spend with my daughter because we both had to work for a living.

Now that I am writing this, it’s clear to me that I didn’t see the whole picture back then. Having the freedom to do business and earn money, I buried myself so deep in work that it was all I had energy for. I thought there was no way the company could go on a day without me – although it certainly could have – so I never took a day off. Those vacations abroad were a distant dream to me – yes, I held the passport of an independent republic, but I never actually gave myself the freedom to use it.

Talinn, Estonia – Touched – Ilya Orehov

Whenever I talk to Anna, I feel that something is missing – a genuine connection, maybe. I used to think of it as a generational thing: someone who’s spent most of their life in a closed-off totalitarian state and someone who’s never experienced this sort of thing are bound to have different perspectives on life. Lately, however, I’ve been feeling as though we’re not all that different. I just haven’t taken the time to forge that connection.

At times, I find myself reading about supposedly “millennial” qualities and wondering if, maybe, these are universal. I didn’t want to work my life away, I simply had the perception that the circumstances demanded it. As did most of my generation, at least in Estonia. I wanted to see the world, have fun hobbies, spend some time figuring out myself and the world. Now I wish I could tell my daughter all this, but – although it makes me sad – I feel unable to.

Mari Tammpuu

Snapshot 1: Talinn, Estonia – Cityscape – Toimetaja Tolkebüroo (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Talinn, Estonia – Painting – Ethan Hu (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Rohuneeme, Estonia – The end of the cape – Julius Jansson (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Parnu, Estonia – A sunny summer day – Garijs Polskis (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Tartu, Estonia – Finally – Jaanus Jagomägi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Talinn, Estonia – Touched – Ilya Orehov (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Caterina Piagentini

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Sarah Turki

Ever since the 2011 spring revolution, Tunisia, a small country in North Africa, has witnessed a progressive improvement in democracy, stability, safety and rights. Yet, sadly and unfortunately, these rights have been limited for some minorities, including the LGBT community.

As affirmed in the constitution, homosexual acts are considered sinful and unacceptable according to the customs and traditions of our Muslim country. However, the people’s view of the LGBT community is divided into two major camps: those who are against it and believe that this community does not represent our identity and religion, and those who believe that gender and sexuality are personal rights and no one has the right to interfere with them.

Tunis, Tunisia – The train station – Wang Sing

Like many other countries, in particular Arab ones, Tunisia is no exception when it comes to criminalizing homosexual acts.

The state justification for suppressing the LGBT community is based on the sodomy provision in Article 230 of the Tunisian Penal Code, which states that any sexual act by two adults of the same sex will be punished with up to 3 years of imprisonment.

Many LGBT community activists have made a huge effort to repeal Article 230, highlighting the fact the Tunisian sodomy law is a relic of the colonial era, and it was not part of the previous Tunisian Penal Code (the Qanun Al Jinayat Wal Ahkam Al Urfya) that was adopted in the 1860s. The former did not incorporate any provisions that criminalize homosexuality.

Sousse, Tunisia – In the Medina quarter – DD Coral

Simultaneously, activists found that Article 230 violates some of the main principles of the Tunisian constitution, including discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, invasion and breach of individual privacy and most importantly, a violation of human dignity by performing an “anal” test on a person in question.

What we witness on the streets is a reality. The LGBT community is fighting for their rights every single day, and its members continually face brutal and corrupt police officers as well as random and unreasonable arrests.

El Jem, Tunisia – On the street – Photosounds

It is commonplace for the police to arrest or fine members of the LGBT community, and no one is in a position to oppose them unless you want to get arrested as well. Furthermore, the media acts as a megaphone for hate speech directed at gay, lesbian or transgender individuals. One of the main highlights in Tunisian television is provocation, which includes violence and other cruel means of disparaging this community. And even though these televisions stations have received warrants, no official or formal reaction stops them from inciting hatred again.

The absence of legal work, coupled with representatives and officials adding to the antagonistic speech and discouraging discourse with the LGBT community, has been helping make these acts the new norm in our society. In 2015 there was a very prominent and leading politician who stated that the famous “Spring Revolution” was a revolution for freedom and not to establish organizations that support gays, adding that homosexuals are not safe for our society and should be criminalized and assailed.

Matmata, Tunisia – The village – Ray-of-the-future

As you can tell here, many officials and politicians in our country are not supportive, the police force continues to violate the rights of the LGBT community, and the general public, especially the older generation, does not support them.

The only glimmer of hope that we have can be found in Tunisian youth, activists and advocacy groups, i.e. associations that defend human rights in general. They are the only way to mobilize public opinion to accept this minority among us. Advocacy campaigns and demonstrations have been playing an important part in our daily lives. It has changed the way people speak out in defense of their rights and freedoms, and, thanks to these campaigns, we have made some progress when it comes to democracy and transparency. Tunisian youth and civil society can play a major role in the acceptance of the LGBT community as part of the whole. And in fact, this is what has been happening in recent years. Many advocates and youth activists have taken to the street to demonstrate the struggle that this minority has faced for decades and how times are changing and we should be more tolerant and accept all genders and sexualities.

Sousse, Tunisia – Port El Kantaoui – DD Coral

“Upon the Shadow,” a short video by Nada Mezni Hafaiedh, was a turning point for the LGBT community in Tunisia. It shifted the focus to what these minority groups are facing and the challenges they have on a daily basis. In the 2017 Universal Periodic Review (UPR), the efforts by advocates and youth activists led the Tunisian government to officially acknowledge discrimination based on sexual orientation. This means that any sort of discrimination, resentment and encouragement for acts of hate will be considered unconstitutional and such perpetrators will be held accountable for their acts. Furthermore, no matter what sexual orientation a person has, they will enjoy full rights. These regulations are a step in the direction of potential legislative change.

Tunisia – Students – Kekyalyaynen

Tunisian society and Tunisian youth are increasingly woke and accept LGBT community rights and freedoms. Youth in Tunisia is socially, politically and economically engaged and present, which can have a positive impact on how things might turn out. Small victories in the name of this minority group are a significant cause for hope and inspiration.

In seeking to end any kind of discrimination, youths and activists must never stop in their fight to overcome the daily challenges of achieving institutional reform so their rights and freedoms will be recognized. Guaranteeing a normal and better life for LGBT Tunisians will require immense awareness and tolerance that cannot be achieved in a short period of time. Ignoring or refusing to accept different mindsets should be changed for the sake of all.

Sarah Turki

Credits

Snapshot 1: Tunis, Tunisia – A couple at night – Elsie Photography (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Tunis, Tunisia – The train station – Wang Sing (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Sousse, Tunisia – In the Medina quarter – DD Coral (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: El Jem, Tunisia – On the street – Photosounds (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Matmata, Tunisia – The village – Ray-of-the-future (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Sousse, Tunisia – Port El Kantaoui – DD Coral (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Tunisia – Students – Kekyalyaynen (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Gia Kalene Mai

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Kashif Butt

Pakistan, a mostly Muslim country with a history of long-term military dictatorships, often appears in the news due to some cataclysmic events or incidents. After separating from British India, we enjoyed a healthy environment for dialog over the first 2-3 decades, where several movements emerged and successfully engaged the masses. However, in 1974, the first lockdown was witnessed when, under the extreme pressure of Muslim fundamentalists, a second amendment was adopted for the constitution of Pakistan, and the Ahmadiyya Muslims were declared non-Muslims. This amendment not only decreased the space for religious dialog but also opened the way for rigid Sunni Muslims to initiate a movement for declaring Shia Muslims as non-Muslim too. Hence, the previous religious dialog turned into a state of no tolerance, and a door opened for religious terror throughout the country.

Peshawar, Pakistan – Bringing the sacrificial animal – M Selcuk Oner

Later in 1977, when General Zia ul Haq1 imposed martial law on the country, there was a surge in religious intolerance. Mr. Zia started to reshape society by taking a specific fundamentalist approach. The changing political circumstances in the region, the Afghan-Soviet war and the interests of Saudi Arabia and the United States also had a heavy impact on the policies of the government and society. The prime minister of Pakistan (Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto) was hanged and the rest of the political leadership, workers, writers, journalists and intellectuals were put behind bars. In particular, there was a crackdown on socialist and communist gatherings throughout the country. The intellectuals were barred and publicly punished with lashes.

Peshawar, Pakistan – Hot, dusty – Jono Photography

Gen. Zia was not popular among the masses. He managed to create the impression that he was the savior of Muslims and was determined to restore the Islamic State. He started to collaborate with the United States and Saudi Arabia to support the Taliban’s fight against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. Under the influence of Saudi Arabia, Gen. Zia encouraged the expansion of Islamic fundamentalism in Pakistan, which seriously damaged the dialog culture in Pakistan. Writers were imprisoned and pseudo writers were introduced by the military establishment, working to promulgate the military agenda. The educational syllabus was revised throughout the country to Islamize society as Gen. Zia desired. Jihad was glamorized, along with the idea that murdering a non-Muslim was a ticket to heaven. Special arrangements, including literature, videos and audio recordings, were made by the military government to recruit people for Jihad in Afghanistan. Young people were picked out and trained in military camps that were specifically designed for the training of Taliban members involved in the Afghan-Soviet War. No one was allowed to read or watch what they wanted. Freedom of expression was nowhere to be found. Gen. Zia was a god, and the people were forced to live in a society shaped by him. That was the death of open dialog.

Rawalpindi, Pakistan – At Reja Bazaar – Patrick Poendl

The generation that grew up in Zia’s era did not have a chance to live in a society with different shades and colors in all aspects of life, including politics, religion, culture, research, education, norms and values. Therefore, they were not prepared for the situation that they were going to face one decade later. After the death of Gen. Zia in a plane crash (1988), a space was created for the people who believed in dialog. However, a huge gap emerged between post- and pre-Zia generations. The new generation had grown up in a hard and tough situation, with a single-shaded society, and was not capable of handling different opinions. It was impossible for them to understand that an alternative opinion can also be viable. The absence of a dialog culture in the new generation pushed them towards rigidness and intolerance. This resulted in both physical and verbal abuse in the society, from the streets to parliament. Physical abuse was frequently encountered, and even several dialog sessions were aired live, with immoral and unethical physical abuse.

Lahore, Pakistan – Lahore Railway Station – M Selcuk Oner

It is due to the black time of Zia’s era that the religious-based murder rate increased day by day. The most prominent example of intolerance was the murder of the governor of Punjab (Salman Taseer2) by his bodyguard (Mumtaz Qadri3) in 2011. He was murdered publicly because he supported the freedom of a Christian woman named Asia Bibi,4 who was falsely involved in a so-called blasphemy case. And thanks to the influence of fundamentalists, the murderer could not be punished for several years, and when he was hanged, the entire country was shutdown by protests. The funeral of Mumtaz Qadri was the one of the largest funerals in the history of Pakistan, and many religious and political leaders attended the funeral. After this incident, religious terror engulfed society and seized the dialog.

Peshawar, Pakistan – Riding through the bazaar – M Selcuk Oner

To date, hundreds of thousands of people have been murdered in the name of religious terror in Pakistan. You are not free to support religious harmony or minorities. If someone belongs to a minority or sect and encounters social injustice, no one will speak for them, and if someone does, they will be treated in the worst possible way. Mashal Khan5 is another example: He was brutally killed by a mob in the lobby of Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, in 2017. He was murdered over allegation of blasphemous posts on social media. However, after his death, a police investigation confirmed that he was not involved in any blasphemous activities.6 No one came to rescue him at the time of the brutal murder. The mob was charged with religious intolerance and unfortunately, graduate students and university officials were part of the mob.

Peshawar, Paskistan – At Karkhanai Bazaar – M Selcuk Oner

Despite all the bad circumstances, social media is making a difference. People use social media to discuss things that cannot be discussed in public places. Although there are several restrictions and limitations on it in Pakistan, Pakistanis living abroad are contributing a lot to the revival of dialog in society. It is obvious that the situation is precarious for social media activists in Pakistan. Several bloggers have been illegally arrested by law enforcement agencies and never been seen in any court of law. Nonetheless, we are optimistic that the re-emergence of some dialog will bring a return of the good days of openness we once enjoyed.

Kashif Butt

References

(1) Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Aug. 12, 1924 – Aug. 17, 1988), Martial Law Dictator and 6th President of Pakistan. Fundamentalist leader and one of the founders of the Taliban. Died in plane crash.

(2) Salman Taseer (May 31, 1944 – Jan. 04, 2011), 26th Governor of Punjab. A liberal politician known for the human rights activities. Murdered by Mumtaz Qadri.

(3) Malik Mumtaz Hussain Qadri (1985 – Feb. 19, 2016). A terrorist supported by fundamentalists. Murderer of Salman Taseer. Hanged.

(4) Aasiya Noreen (Born 1971). A poor Christian woman accused of blasphemy, spent 10 years in prison before the Supreme Court finally acquitted her.

(5) Mashal Khan (Murdered April 13, 2017).

(6) https://khybernews.tv/ig-says-no-evidence-against-mashal-his-friends/

Credits

Snapshot 1: Islamabad, Pakistan – Climb the sun – Nouman Raees (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Peshawar, Pakistan – Bringing the sacrificial animal – M Selcuk Oner (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Peshawar, Pakistan – Hot, dusty – Jono Photography (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Rawalpindi, Pakistan – At Reja Bazaar – Patrick Poendl (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Lahore, Pakistan – Lahore Railway Station – M Selcuk Oner (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Peshawar, Pakistan – Riding through the bazaar – M Selcuk Oner (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Peshawar, Paskistan – At Karkhanai Bazaar – M Selcuk Oner (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Esmonde Cole

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Kenn Mwangi

Since the majority of the Kenyan population identifies as Christian, Sundays hold a special place in their lives. Every Sunday without fail, millions of Christians from all walks of life throng to their favorite places of worship. We come together eager for a chance to commune with the man in the cloud. Each worshipper is driven by personal reasons often revolving around five main categories – expressing gratitude, asking for forgiveness, seeking blessings, reinforcing their faith, and reserving a place in the afterlife.

As is the norm with religious upbringing, most people were indoctrinated into Christianity as children to revere God and all that he stands for. We have been taught that God is kind and loving to all those who believe and venerate him. He is bountiful with his blessings for those who follow his teachings unquestioningly and those who love him unreservedly.

It is with this understanding that we sing our little hearts out during the moving praise and worship sessions and sit stiffly in the hard pews during lengthy sermons. It is the reason we’re generous with our money. We give unreservedly during the offering, tithe faithfully with each paycheck and any other time we’re called upon to fund God’s work.

Nairobi, Kenya – On the street – Authentic Travel

Blessed is the hand that giveth.

Preachers are quick to delve into the benefits of giving generously to the church. They will reinforce their messages with the appropriate bible quotes that all conclude with god loving a cheerful giver. The congregation will hang on their every word and loosen their purses further when called upon. After all, these men of god understand and make it clear that the size of your offering is directly correlated with the amount of grace that will be bestowed on you in heaven. After all, who doesn’t need or love grace?

But what does grace really consist of?

Every believer making a beehive for the church could use a little more grace in their life. At best, grace is an amorphous term whose meaning varies from person to person, assuming any form of positive human experience. Thanks to Christian teachings, we’re are led to believe that God channels his grace to us through his servant – the clergy. As such, Christians swallow every word that comes from the servant’s mouth, believing it to be pure and divine. We are required to take the word of the clergy at face value and obey it unquestioningly.

Rusinga Island, Kenya – Hanging out – JL Warehouse

And that’s where the problem lies. The clergy has since risen to become a privileged bunch that is venerated to the point of being regarded as demi-gods. Realizing that they are above reproach, self-styled religious figures have seized the opportunity to abuse this privilege. Since the turn of the century, independent churches have sprung up all over the Kenyan landscape, with splinter groups emerging in just about every Christian denomination.

Money and power more than the need to spread the gospel is the primary driving force behind these developments. Churches and faith-based organizations are legally not required to pay taxes. Most religious figures have realized that churches are excellent money minting machines and have moved in for the kill.

Nairobi, Kenya – Downtown – Billy Miaron

A growing number of people hungry for grace makes the perfect target market for the prosperity gospel. Silk-tongued independent pastors have honed this message down to an art form. The sermons no longer dwell on eternal rewards in the afterlife. Instead, they now focus on reaping material rewards in this life – also referred to as the prosperity gospel.

The message revolves around having unshakable faith in God and giving generously to him in exchange for divine favors. These preachers are the perfect embodiment of this philosophy. They live in lavish houses that cost millions of dollars, drive a fleet of high-end cars, fly out for holidays and conferences, hobnobbing with the rich and powerful. They are living the kind of life that we can only dream of – further reinforcing the need to rekindle our faith in God.

Mombasa, Kenya – Trading shops – Fotogrin

However, if one was to dig deeper into the perfect life of these flamboyant men of God, huge cracks and inconsistencies begin to appear. You would realize their primary source of wealth is the offerings that are collected from their faithful. Their eloquent, well-crafted and moving sermons draw huge crowds each and every Sunday of the year. As the groups grow larger, church services are spread across the day – no one is turned away.

To shore up the offering collections during each service, preachers reinforce the need to match your offering with the amount of grace you’d like to receive in exchange. Systematic offering collection methods ensure that every member of the congregation makes a beehive for the collection plate. And so, the size of the Sunday collection soars.

Nairobi, Kenya – At the festival – Billy Miaron

So great is the generosity on Sunday that churches resort to hiring armed services to transport and guard the Sunday collections. Sunday services generate anything from hundreds of thousands to millions of shillings. Some churches announce the sums collected publicly while in some that’s a closely guarded secret. Either way, the congregation is happy to receive their weekly grace.

Meanwhile, the preachers are left with a jackpot that runs into the millions, and they put it to use. Most of them use it as seed money to create highly successful business empires as they use their position and influence to turn their congregations into paying customers. Since they have the necessary funds, these religious figures can afford to hire the best brains on the market to run their investment. For the mundane chores, they are quick to offer unpaid positions to a cross-section of the congregation who are only happy to be doing God’s work.

Machakos, Kenya – Rural farmers – James Karuga

And so, the cycle continues with rich and flamboyant preachers creating satellite branches to tend to a growing congregation eager to hear their message. As the number of branches swells, so does the amount of money they generate with each passing Sunday collection. We watch in awe as they create mindboggling business empires that cement their place among the rich, mighty, and powerful. All the while insisting that the key to leading a successful life hinges on having unshakable faith in the Lord and giving generously to the church to fund God’s work. Since we do not see as impressive results in our lives, we endeavor to increase our faith and donation to the church with each passing year.

Kenn Mwangi

Credits

Snapshot 1: Kadzhiado, Kenya – Headed off – Sergey Pesterev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Nairobi, Kenya – On the street – Authentic Travel (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Rusinga Island, Kenya – Hanging out – JL Warehouse (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Nairobi, Kenya – Downtown – Billy Miaron (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Mombasa, Kenya – Trading shops – Fotogrin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Nairobi, Kenya – At the festival – Billy Miaron (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Machakos, Kenya – Rural farmers – James Karuga (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Christian Escobar

In the life of every human being there are moments of rupture: situations where we experience such intense emotions that our world is turned upside down. A few months ago, I turned 31 and, during the several weeks after my birthday celebration, I wondered about a lot of things: Where will my work take me? Where am I going to live? Will my beloved ones stay by my side for a long time? But, among all those important questions, there was one that is still preoccupying my thoughts: Where can I find true love?

Bogota, Columbia – The street – Red Mauro Silva

When I was younger, love was one of the topics I was more concerned about because I fell for the idea of loving someone, of experiencing those wonderful feelings I read about in the work of poets I admired. I had never had a romantic relationship and I could not wait to have one. It was not until I was 21 that I had my first relationship, but when that moment finally arrived it was not everything I had been expecting: I ran into jealousy, arguments and anguish. After several years and relationships, I am still trying to answer that question because I really want to know if love is real.

Bogota, Columbia – La Candelaria – posztos

Our planet Earth is a vast place. It’s so full of different landscapes, languages, cultures, that I cannot understand why sometimes we tend to become attached to certain aspects of our own culture, as if we cannot see beyond the end of our own nose. And I say this because I have experienced it myself: For a long time, I never thought about finding love outside the borders of my own country. I know this is not bad at all because we all have different needs and, even if the possibilities are infinite, our personal fulfillment can reside in those simple little things easily found in our everyday life. So, a big part of my quest for love has taken place here in Colombia. Yes, by the way, I’m from Colombia, so let me tell you a little bit about my country’s cultural traits.

Monserrate, Columbia – Cityscape – Michael Lechner

Colombia is considered by many to be a magical land teeming with joyful and friendly people who are always willing to help you and share with you their passion for life. Some even say that Colombia is one of the happiest countries in the whole world. As I stated tacitly, most of my romantic partners have been Colombian women characterized by their warmth, expressiveness and great emotional intensity. But, despite living in what some people consider a wonderful place, I have always felt like a stranger in my own culture.

Bogota, Columbia – Business and art – Watch The World

There are some common aspects of Colombian behavior that I have never liked and the funny thing is that I started noticing them more intensely (even in my own behavior) when I began to interact more with people from other countries (especially from Europe). For example, sometimes we can be quite relaxed about specific situations in which a different attitude would be more appropriate, and that sometimes leads us to be irresponsible. Moreover, a lot of Colombian people avoid being straightforward in order to not hurt other people’s feelings, which can be very annoying if you just want a quick and honest answer. Now I try to avoid doing these things as much as I can.

Bogota, Columbia – Pigeon-holed – Angello Lopez

When it comes to romantic relationships, you can experience a wide range of behavior. On the one hand, Colombian women can be extremely amorous and caring, letting you know how much they love you and think about you in many different ways. My first girlfriend (the one I loved the most) used to take every chance to tell me how much she cared about me and that made me feel important and loved – it was really beautiful. I experienced this several times with different Colombian women, even if it wasn’t with the same intensity. On the other hand, they can become very possessive and sometimes may create very intense dramas out of nothing. For example, at one time my first girlfriend broke up with me because she heard a random girl talking about how handsome I was. A bit extreme, right? Well, although it sounds incredible, I had other experiences similar to this one, like that day when a girl I was dating got very angry at me because I told her I couldn’t talk to her on the phone while I was having lunch.

Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun

I think all these behaviors can be explained by a concept I call “the soap opera culture”: We tend to greatly amplify every emotion, both the good and the bad ones, as if we were living in a soap opera. So, it is possible that if a Colombian woman loves you a lot, she will give you some strong emotions that maybe you don’t want, which can become a problem if you are as calm as me. And this is why I have always felt like I am wandering between two extremes when I dated Colombian women: some days I touched the sky and some others I hit the ground. I know that this way of understanding and experiencing emotions is not a bad thing, it’s just another way of feeling, living. As I stated earlier, everything depends on what we are looking for. I have some foreign friends who are married to Colombian women and they seem very happy, and I’m glad to know that they have found what I am still looking for.

Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun

Have you ever experienced something similar within your own culture? If the answer is yes, maybe what we wish for can only be found somewhere else, and sailing across this whole wide world could throw some light on it. At the end of the day, any decision leading us to happiness is a perfect one. We just need to make it.

Christian Escobar

Credits

Snapshot 1: Cartagena, Columbia – In the tunnel – Luis Vidal (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Bogota, Columbia – Street art – Jorge Gardner (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Bogota, Columbia – La Candelaria – posztos (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Monserrate, Columbia – Cityscape – Michael Lechner (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Bogota, Columbia – Business and art – Watch The World (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Bogota, Columbia – Pigeon-holed – Angello Lopez (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Bogota, Columbia – Meeting at the town square – Nowaczyk (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Lee G.

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Nikolina Pavicevic

On the Adriatic coastline lies a small country with a beautiful seaside and northern region. The country is called Montenegro, and the legend that we are taught in schools says that the name Montenegro was coined by two Italian salesmen. Montenegro is the home of tall people who persevered through chaotic historical events but succeeded in keeping their hearts warm and their heads up.

Sometimes patriarchal structures and a strong wish to preserve traditions seem to prevail over this area. However, there is another, less known side of Montenegro. I was born and live here, and I can, without a doubt, say that gender inequality is one of the biggest problems our society faces.

Gender inequality isn’t discussed, mentioned or even acknowledged by the majority in Montenegro. And a woman’s fight starts even before she is born.

Montenegro – Today – Andreja Mihailovic

Along with Albania, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, Montenegro is ranked at the top of the list of countries with the greatest imbalance between male and female children.1 The Institute for Statistics in Montenegro reported that in 2009 alone, 113 boys were born for every 100 girls. The natural ratio is usually 102 or 103 boys per 100 girls.

These facts may sound confusing or surprising, but it is an open secret that our women don’t resist social pressure to give birth to a son and abort a girl.

Ostrog Monastery, Montenegro – Morning – Ollirg

Montenegrin lawmakers have tried to control and suppress the problem by law. But there are no reported cases. The law of silence is stronger than written legislation. Abortions are done in private clinics so the public isn’t informed about them, and families are “happy” when their women abort girls.

If a conceived girl is allowed to be born, she often faces additional problems and challenges later in life: Every fifth woman in Montenegro faces some form of economic violence. This is poorly recognized and rarely reported.2 It is an open secret that many women are economically dependent on their partners. We meet these women on the street, we chit chat with them or go out for a coffee, they can be our neighbors, our former classmates, our friends or our relatives. Women often try to conceal the real truth, hiding behind lies for years and years, even decades.

Kotor, Montenegro – On the weekend – Igor Lushchay

It is a well-known fact that economic violence is also associated with other forms of violence, such as psychological violence. A partner usually controls and manipulates a woman, not letting her make independent decisions about her income. She then tries to fool herself into thinking that this is for the better and that she will avoid any possible conflicts and/or physical violence. Sometimes a partner convinces his girlfriend or wife to leave her job, saying that she should stay at home and take care of the household and kids.

Luckily, some people have become aware of the problem and are trying to solve it. For example, in 2017 Mccan Podgorica and Mccan Belgrade, along with the help of the Women’s Right Centre, organized the campaign #Neželjena (#Unwanted) which affected not only Montenegrin people but the whole region. The goal of the campaign was to prevent sex-selective abortions. This campaign quickly received media attention, people on social media debated and discussed this issue and it seemed that the Montenegrin public became more conscious of the problem.

Virpazar, Montenegro – At the wine and fish festival – Natalya Volchenkova

Of course, the campaign is just the beginning. It is great that it drew public attention, but that is just one step in solving this issue and making our country a safe place for everyone.

Another step was the regional 3-year program “Implementing norms, changing minds,” funded by the EU and conducted in 2017 with the goal of ending gender-based discrimination and violence against women in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia) and Turkey.3 This program has solutions that they are actively trying to achieve. They think that a difference should be made step-by-step, and some of their ideas are to influence the laws and policies through work with governments, enhancing a woman’s position as leader, etc.

Montenegro – Elsewhere on May 2nd – DeStefano

It is important that we help young girls develop healthy self-esteem from a young age and also offer them emotional support. Afterwards, it is important that we teach children and teenagers about gender inequality and the related issues. That way, if something similar happens to them in the future, they will recognize the problem and seek help.

At first glance, Montenegrin society may look hostile to these changes, but the campaign and program, as well as many more initiatives to come, suggest that we are ready for change. All these attempts to make an improvement are a great way to influence our society.

Kotor, Montenegro – Afternoon walk – Dizfoto

We should realize that every human has equal rights. Although, this sounds trivial, like a cliché, sometimes we forget the true meaning and importance of it. Our society may not have been conscious of this in the past, but now we are aware that inequality is a problem. Sometimes we may make it harder for women to succeed in their goals, when we should encourage everyone to achieve them and be happy, no matter what their gender, race, ethnicity, etc.

It seems like we break every law, except the law of silence. We should not keep quiet about gender inequality, or inequality of any kind. On the contrary, we should discuss the problem, encourage women to share their experiences and make our society a safe and warm environment for everyone.

Nikolina Pavicevic

References

1.United Nations Population Fund (2012). Gender-biased sex selection.

2.Vucinic, Z. (2017). Novinarsko pero o rodnoj ravnopravnosti (Gender Equality Journal). Podgorica.

3. Woman UN (2017). Implementing Norms,Changing Minds. Retrieved from UNDP Montenegro : http://www2.unwomen.org/-/media/field%20office%20eca/attachments/publications/2017/un%20women%20regional_evaw_2-pager_final.pdf?la=en&vs=1703

Credits

Snapshot 1: Montenegro – Rimmed – Lazar Todorovic (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Montenegro – Today – Andreja Mihailovic (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Ostrog Monastery, Montenegro – Morning – Ollirg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Kotor, Montenegro – On the weekend – Igor Lushchay (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Virpazar, Montenegro – At the wine and fish festival – Natalya Volchenkova (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Montenegro – Elsewhere on May 2nd – DeStefano (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Kotor, Montenegro – Afternoon walk – Dizfoto (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed