Transposing emblem by Alejandra Gonzalez Sariñana

Social movements have always divided public opinion, with strong ideas and passion accompanying supporters and their opponents. Sadly, there are political actors who know how to exploit this polarization for their own agendas. I believe that every social movement has two independent factors: one is the original demand, and the other is the actions taken in order to mobilize that demand. Demands are, for the most part, defended by people who believe in them, but the actions they take are sometimes directed by external interests that manipulate them for political reasons. Student movements are a good example because young people who are full of hope, energy and new ideas clash with the establishment, older generations and preset ideas. Student movements always polarize public feelings, and they are an easy target for political manipulation. In Mexico, we have lived through several important student movements, and it amazes me how the same movement can be experienced in completely different ways by different people. Students can be for or against the cause, they can also agree with the cause and disagree with the actions; people affected by their actions will most likely be annoyed, even if they support the student’s demands; people who are not affected might remain indifferent or become involved; while authorities might seek to benefit themselves either by provoking or repressing certain actions. Of course, the social context also affects the way a social movement is received by the general population, and maybe that is why the most important student movement in Mexico happened in the 1960s.

Mexico City, Mexico – Commemoration of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre – Eduardo Guevara

2018 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the “matanza de Tlatelolco”. On October 2nd, 1968 the government of the then president, Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, ordered military action against members of the student movement gathered in a public square. Hundreds of students were shot from surrounding buildings while they held a public meeting. This happened only three days before the opening ceremony for the 1968 Olympic Games. The student movement started as part of (and a consequence of), generalized social and political movements throughout the world in that decade. Their primary issue was the use of excessive police force against students after an event that involved a brawl between members of the two main public universities in Mexico: UNAM and IPN. I had not been born yet, but I have heard stories involving members of different sectors of society that lived through it and that experienced it with totally different views. First, as a student in the National University, I heard stories from students at that time (now teachers) who defended the movement and remembered it as being fair and necessary. They hold the government completely accountable for the horrible end. Second, my mother; she was not a student, she was 27 years old and working in a hotel and remembers the pressure they were under because of the up-coming Olympic Games and how they thought the student movement might affect it and the economic loss it implied. Lastly, my husband, who was only 7 at the time. Many children like him remember being picked up at school by their panicked parents because “the students were coming” and kept at home for several days in fear of “the students”.

Mexico City, Mexico – Gathering to protest – Freda Bouskoutas

In 1999 I had the opportunity to experience a student movement in the flesh: I was in my fourth year of architecture school in the National University (UNAM). It began with the authority’s proposal to introduce new fees, and all hell broke loose. Opinions where divided from the start: some defended the State’s obligation to provide free education as a right for everyone; others agreed that most of the students could afford to pay something for their education (the amount to be paid was a symbolic and voluntary 20 cents per semester). Protest began in every school, groups started to get organized and held assemblies to discuss actions to be taken. It is important to mention that there had been two previous attempts to impose a fee structure, one in the 70s and one in the 80s. Both triggered the same course of events: general protests, student strikes and polarization. We must then question the timing of this new proposal. 2000 was an election year, so in 1999 campaigns were already underway. The governing party was down in the polls as well as in popularity, the main opposition party was looking to finally defeat them after seventy years in power. It was well known in the university that the opposition party was endorsing some of the leaders of the student movement, some of them even moved on to jobs within the system. The student strike in 1999 lasted for almost a year; many students left school and went off to finish their studies somewhere else; companies started putting “no UNAM” policies on their job offers; many people wanted actions to be taken for the strike to end, even by force, while others defended the student’s right to protest. Finally, in February 2000, police entered the university campus and put an end to the strike. But an end to the strike does not mean an end to the problem, or to the differences within the community.

Mexico City, Mexico – Downtown – Alex Cimbal

History has a way of repeating itself. It was now 2018 and Mexico was again in an important political moment. We had an election in July, and there was a change in the ruling party in December. So, it might not be a coincidence that a new student movement formed. It started as a protest against violence in and outside of the various campuses (several students had been killed or raped without any actions being taken to find and punish the culprits). Students from one of the schools organized a protest in front of the university president’s office; they were confronted by a group of “students” called “Porros”, whom are rumored to have been paid by someone to provoke. Just as in 1968, a student movement was ignited by someone, probably with a political agenda or simply to destabilize the country before the new president could be sworn in. This time, however, everyone agreed that the students had a just cause and that security issues must be addressed, not only inside the university, but throughout the entire country. What seems to divide the community is the way these goals can be achieved. Some believe that striking and closing schools is the only way to pressure the authorities into acting, while others do not think that missing classes helps in any way. This polarization causes a clear division between those who support the movement’s actions, and those who are against them. Even within schools, division is apparent, and thus, the student movement does not present a united front.

Mexico City, Mexico – Biblioteca Vasconcelos – R.M. Nunes

But, who wins when a student movement is ignited? Can the students win? I recently asked one of the participants in the movement if they ever question who is behind the events that lead to protests and strikes, and what their political agenda really is. He answered that he does, but only in conversations with his friends, not in the open meetings. In the end, he says, it doesn’t matter, as long as the main issue gets resolved and actions are taken to create a safe environment for the community, he doesn’t care if somebody gains political power or leverage. I guess it’s true, even if social movements are used to polarize society and push political agendas forward, the underlying issues that give rise to them should not be forgotten. Those issues are real, as they have been real every time, and, yes, they divide opinions and they are used by politicians, but they are important.

Alejandra Gonzalez Sariñana

Credits

Photo 1: Guadalajara, Mexico – The mirror of what? – Francisco J Ramos Gallego (Shutterstock)

Photo 2: Mexico City, Mexico – Commemoration of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre – Eduardo Guevara (Shutterstock)

Photo 3: Mexico City, Mexico – Gathering to protest – Freda Bouskoutas (Shutterstock)

Photo 4: Mexico City, Mexico – Downtown – Alex Cimbal (Shutterstock)

Photo 5: Mexico City, Mexico – Biblioteca Vasconcelos – R.M. Nunes (Shutterstock)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Rina Sitorus

These days, it is hard to separate polarisasi politik from the everyday life of Indonesian citizens. This phenomenon – having a personal and emotionally charged negative feeling about those in the other political camp has risen sharply before the upcoming presidential election in April 2019. People experience it every day, from conservative media, social media, to Friday speeches in the mosques, school announcements, and the biggest and most important “platform” of polarisasi politik nowadays: WhatsApp groups. It shows that people in homogenous communities grow more certain of their political ideas and beliefs, causing them to become extreme. Campaigns by both parties on both conventional and social media just amplify this.

Bandung, Indonesia – Downtown – Ikhsan Assidiqie

The tale of two films

If you think that polarisasi politik is only about debates and speeches on television, and all those campaigns by the two official presidential candidates (President Joko Widodo and his contender Prabowo Subianto), think again. People can get a taste of polarisasi politik from these two biopic films: A Man Called Ahok (AMCA) and Hanum and Rangga. Released on the same day, to me personally, this is the best example of how polarized Indonesian politics is these days.

Bandung, Indonesia – Shopping – Fikri Rasyid

A Man Called Ahok (AMCA) tells the story of the childhood of former Jakarta Governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok), while Hanum and Rangga is a love story about the relationship between Hanum Rais and her husband Rangga Almahendra. To make things interesting, Hanum is the daughter of Amien Rais, one of the driving forces behind the mob that successfully demanded Ahok (who is widely known as a strong ally of President Joko Widodo) be put in jail for blasphemy. Hanum Rais herself is a prominent member of her father’s party Partai Amanat Nasional (PAN), a faithful supporter of Prabowo Subianto.

The heated discussions – mostly having nothing to do with the production aspects of either film – are not only happening in social media, but extend all the way to IMDB. Rumor has it that it is mandatory for PAN’s supporters to go see A Man Called Ahok, with the AMCA team giving away free tickets for people to boost the audience figures. The rating for A Man Called Ahok on IMDB is 9, 2 while for Hanum and Rangga it is 1, 2 (ouch). As somebody with an open mind, you probably realize that the reviews might not come from a totally unbiased audience, but you can see this is how far the polarisasi politik has gone in Indonesia.

Bandung, Indonesia – On the street – Fikri Rasyid

What is actually happening?

Experts say that the polarisasi politik happening in Indonesia is due to the aftermath of the 2014 presidential election. This trend continued in the Jakarta gubernatorial election in 2017, where identity politics were used to gain votes.

It’s no secret that the tensions in the 2019 election are already heating up in Indonesia. This is the second time Jokowi and Prabowo are competing against each other and all signs are pointing to an even rougher campaign.

Prabowo’s supporters call Jokowi’s supporters liars and infidels, while Jokowi’s fans stamp Prabowo’s supporters as a bunch of fascists and extremists with low IQs.

Bali, Indonesia – In the shade – Johan Mouchet

Indonesians – creative as ever with their words – even have two unofficially official names for these two extremes: cebong (Jokowi’s pet tadpole) for Jokowi’s supporters and kampret (a derogatory reference to bats) for Prabowo’s.

Most cebongs are also loyal supporters of Ahok, and they are the same people who oppose the idea of Islamic values (Sariah) dominating public policy and daily life.

Meanwhile, kamprets are those who support Prabowo (mostly since 2014) and tend to actively join the massive anti-Ahok rallies and loudly claim that Jokowi hates Islam.

Surabaya, Indonesia – Waiting – Niko Lienata

Academics have concluded that there are three things that can be identified as the causes of polarisasi politik: difference in the empathy target, difference in phenomenon attribution and difference in a person’s moral values. When you look at Indonesian demographics, especially with the large social and economic divergences, it is no wonder that identity politics is popular. People can’t help but identify with a (bigger) group who they trust shares the same beliefs and defends their (personal) interests. The presidential election in Indonesia is no longer a contest between two candidates and their coalitions, but also a competition between two ideologies: a large Islamic coalition on one side and a nationalist secularist Islam and non-Islam on the other.

In the Indonesian political world today, the narrative seems to be: if you are on Jokowi’s side then you are anti-Islam, if you are on Prabowo’s, then you are an extremist.

Bandung, Indonesia – Take a look – Ali Yahya

Is it always bad?

One thing you can’t deny is that polarisasi politik triggers people’s curiosity and it motivates them to gather more information about their candidate. In today’s world, social media and group chats have made this information easy to obtain. With a few clicks, people can follow a conversation about politics via trending topics and comment sections.

The latest study reports that polarisasi stimulates people’s participation in politics. Alan Abramowitz (a professor of political science at Emory University) argues that polarization engages the public and increases participation in the electoral process. It has been noted in Indonesia that the number of voters who made use of their right to vote in the 2014 presidential election reached 70%. Not to mention that in the Jakarta gubernatorial election in 2014, voter turnout reached 70%, compared to 66.7% in 2012.

Jakarta, Indonesia – Women only car – Georgina Captures

Polarisasi politik also motivates people to actively monitor the work of the government – with their own reasons, mind you – but nevertheless they are actively involved in the political process. The government is then required to be more transparent and accountable. In the period before the upcoming presidential election in 2019, the candidates (at least the ones with a good head on their shoulders) will also feel the urge to do the same with their campaigns and promises.

It seems logical that polarisasi politik could strengthen democracy if both sides would just stop using identity politics and negative campaigning to attack their rivals. It also seems logical that polarisasi politik would benefit democracy if people were to first check the authenticity of news or a story before sharing it on social media or in group chats. But the thing is, when you have decided to support one side no matter what, your heart has already decided that for you, and I’m afraid there’s not much room left for logic.

Rina Sitorus

Credits

Photo 1: Borobudur, Indonesia – Mountain fog – Sebastian Staines (Shutterstock)

Photo 2: Bandung, Indonesia – Downtown – Ikhsan Assidiqie (Unsplash)

Photo 3: Bandung, Indonesia – Shopping – Fikri Rasyid (Unsplash)

Photo 4: Bandung, Indonesia – On the street – Fikri Rasyid (Unsplash)

Photo 5: Bali, Indonesia – In the shade – Johan Mouchet (Unsplash)

Photo 6: Surabaya, Indonesia – Waiting – Niko Lienata (Unsplash)

Photo 7: Bandung, Indonesia – Take a look – Ali Yahya (Unsplash)

Photo 8: Jakarta, Indonesia – Women only car – Georgina Captures (Shutterstock)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Jonay Quintero Hernandez

“Extremes meet” – this little piece of popular wisdom may come in handy more often than not in many a conversation today. Everyone seems to be ready not only to give their own opinion (regardless of whether it has been asked for or not), but to defend it down to the last bullet. Very often a simple suggestion is responded to with an outburst of emotional arguing rather than with a logical response related to the original statement.

If all this happens in private, daily life in interactions with classmates, colleagues, relatives or passers-by in a pub, what happens in the international geopolitical scene? Just a few examples, though not necessarily innovative ones: the Brexit “thing”, pro-independence claims in Catalonia, populism and neofascism in western Europe, ISIS and other religious extremists, and the Trump administration, among others.

Barcelona, Spain – La Sagrada Familia – Claudio Testa

However, the savvy reader might have been thinking at this point: “But extremism is all about terrorist attacks and the like, isn’t it?” Well, according to the UK’s Counter Extremism Strategy of 2015, the definition of extremism would be something like: “…[] the vocal or active opposition to our fundamental values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty, and respect and tolerance for different faiths and beliefs. We also regard calls for the death of members of our armed forces as extremist.” So, if someone goes against “our fundamental values”, or threatens respect or tolerance, they are being an “extremist”. But the question is do we all, not only as countries, but as individuals, respect the other’s rules and values? Are we really so tolerant?

Millennials are said to be, by far, the most oversensitive generation ever and it is very interesting to consider whether there is some truth in this claim. The current generation has grown up in an over protective environment in which the individual is said to be “special”, “different”, and therefore, why should the slightest discrepancy be allowed, especially if it questions your values or hurts your feelings? You are the “special” one.

Torrox, Spain – Sheltered – Hector Martinez

Allegedly, younger generations have greater concerns about social or environmental issues than previous ones. That’s cool. But being brought up in the notion of their own uniqueness, many youngsters, apparently seem to care about those issues but, especially when they affect them, there is a certain tendency to overreact to the offenses. It is very hard to live if you take offense at the slightest criticism that you receive.

There seems to be a dictatorship of the “politically correct”, a constant exaggeration of inclusive language or a fundamentalist preaching of gender ideology. All of these tendencies can be in themselves “extremist” as they take values originally considered to be positive too far. As they fall into exaggeration, these values get diverted from the purpose they were originally designed for. One of the most famous cases took place when Netflix began broadcasting the classic TV series “Friends”, which enjoyed great success when aired for the first time almost 30 years ago. The new audiences considered the series to be homophobic, misogynist and contrary to LGTB rights. Particularly controversial was the episode in which Ross’s lesbian ex-wife marries her partner; many of the jokes about their sexual choice angered the youngest Netflix audience.

Barcelona, Spain – Is there another option – John Fornander

The fact that at that time everyone laughed at that kind of humor may be arguable, but the real point is that not a soul thought by any means, at that time, that silly jokes of this sort could be offensive to anyone. No one would have thought this to be such a big deal back then. That being said, is it that we all were brutally homophobic at that time? Or is Gen Y overreacting to this issue? This is just one example. The fact is that increasingly more experts on psychology and sociology are beginning to suggest the latter. And this is again where we see the “snowflake” phenomenon mentioned above: if you are “special” yourself, your feelings are more important than anybody else’s, your views matter more than anyone else’s… indirectly you are two inches above the rest of mankind.

This is at the heart of extremism because if you take offence so easily and your reactions are so violent (critics, please check any comments section of youtube, Twitter or any other social network), then you are surely provoking an at least, equal reaction in your counterpart. Everybody seems to believe they have the right to pontificate on any subject, no matter how complex it might be. There is a serious danger in believing that mind-bending, long-lasting problems may have simple, straightforward solutions. Here is where the “bad guys” come into play. The populists, nationalist, or just simply professional manipulators that try to gain some sort of profit from general uncertainty or social unrest.

Tocon, Spain – The light chain – Mariano Nocetti

The media are particularly relevant in this issue. They seem to have dropped independence, neutrality, objectivity or simply essential ethics long ago. Taking Spain as an example – although it seems to be a general tendency everywhere – there are no “normal journalists” any more. You only get left-wing journalists and media or right-wing journalist and media. “Wisdom is always in the right middle,” Aristotle said, but that does not seem to apply any more. When we hear these journalists’ mean, selfish, one-sided, if not simply false reporting, we feel like we are being transported to our darkest past.

Obviously, there had to be consequences sooner or later. The surge in populist parties like Podemos or CUP, independentism (we always had a little bit of this though) and, worst of all, the appearance of a far-right party, for the first time in more than forty years, are due to this two-sided phenomenon of extremism-polarization. One could have thought that Falange, the Franco regime’s party, would become this strong far right party at some point, but that does not happen to be the case. National Catholicism is difficult to market in a time in which fewer and fewer people seem to care about religion in western countries. There is a renewed, “fresh” and “normal guy looking” for this new version of fascism, which is called VOX, and he succeeded in gathering an audience of 10,000 at Vistalegre Arena in Madrid. This audience is “massive” for the social standards of a “leftie” country like Spain and no far right party had managed to achieve this in the last forty years.

Marbella, Spain – It’s fun – Quino Al

Their ideology can be quickly summarized in “Spain for Spaniards” (immigrant deportations), the abolition of Autonomous Communities (centralization of the country) and “Make Spain Great Again”… whatever… Doesn’t it sound familiar to you? Old imperial nations such as Austria, Germany, the UK or Spain are especially vulnerable to this kind of “ideology”, but this delusional return to a “brighter past” is even triumphing in smaller nations. Otherwise you couldn’t explain the success of such bizarre characters as Orban, Farage, Le Pen or the Kaczýnskis.

When you surf the Internet, open a newspaper, listen to the radio or watch TV it really feels like we are in the 30s again. Watch out. Most people who lived during that time are long gone now, so what happened in those years has become a “not so serious” account performed by Hollywood, the History Channel and history books. Finally, as most educational systems in Western Europe have abandoned humanistic disciplines, this creates the perfect background for a new surge in these dark ideologies of the past. The effects of fascism and communism are a foreign experience for most millennials, who are at risk of repeating more than just an environment of polarization and extremes.

Jonay Quintero Hernandez

Credits

Photo 1: Caldes de Montbui, Spain – Green – David Monje (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Barcelona, Spain – La Sagrada Familia – Claudio Testa (Unsplash)

Photo 3: Torrox, Spain – Sheltered – Hector Martinez (Unsplash)

Photo 4: Barcelona, Spain – Is there another option – John Fornander (Unsplash)

Photo 5: Tocon, Spain – The light chain – Mariano Nocetti (Unsplash)

Photo 6: Marbella, Spain – It’s fun – Quino Al (Unsplash)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Osvaldo Montano

It has been 9 years since Bolivia’s Constitutional Referendum was held in 2009. This event made us first perceive the political polarization in the country and revealed sharp differences between the regions, highlighting a country divided by social class, region and political party. These dynamics, however, are due more to current than historical differences between the regions. Rural people who identify as indigenous have backed the presidency of Evo Morales in the departments of La Paz, Oruro and Potosí, while people in the rest of the country make up the opposition.

La Paz, Bolivia – The cityscape at night – Geziel Esteban

When making a decision, society reveals the bias that exists in the different social classes. In the countryside there is almost unconditional support for Evo Morales; the government support in rural areas is strengthened by all the spending that has benefited them: the construction of hospitals, schools, markets, roads and other facilities. Furthermore, the party is connected with and has supported the coca leaf producers. On the other hand, in the cities, one feels opposition to the government for racial and political motives. The history of blockades and social upheaval with which their political life began spurs this sentiment, along with the sale of strategic government companies to foreign corporations, such as National Security, whether for laudable reasons or not.

La Paz, Boliva – The cityscape – Tobias Jelskov

The government of Evo Morales has achieved profound changes in the current environment of Bolivia, despite the global crisis in 2008, which hardly affected the country. The re-negotiation of the price of gas at that time along with cuts in government spending and salaries of government employees have generated growth and surpluses never seen before in the country. On the contrary, investment errors have given the opposition the opportunity to raise failures as a political flag.

The opposition’s political strategy to use the media and internet in 2016 changed the public’s general feeling about the presidency of Evo Morales, distorting his mandate and presenting personal problems. This created uncertainty and also brought to light deeper problems of corruption and theft in his administration. As a result, the ruling party lost popular support, and people’s general opinion of the administration deteriorated, undermining the president’s image.

Copocabana, Bolivia – Tucked in – Sunny Upadhyay

The political reality in Bolivia has revealed a divided opposition without a clear leader, where self-interests have distorted the main figures in the political parties. They have failed to present a clear proposal or focus on pointing out the errors of Evo Morales’s government, have provided poor information to the public and generated uncertainty.

This situation entails a murky future, where the ruling party and the opposition seek to distort each other’s positions and appeal to the citizen’s feelings, provoking them to take one side or the other without knowing the achievements or virtues. This reflects a culture with a great need for improvement, as all the political participants largely show that they put personal gains ahead of public services. A lot of this conflict has moved from the streets to the indomitable social networks.

La Paz, Bolivia – On the street – NiarKrad

There are those who do not recognize that we are experiencing a moment of polarization in Bolivia. This failure to understand the dynamics is superficial and does not take into account that we polarize from the moment we do not accept the values of the other side. This is seen more and more in the divided Bolivia of today, where there are only two options: Evo and not-Evo. This polarization can even reach the point of hatred and the desire to impose one’s views without being sensitive to the situation of the country.

These differences have revealed negative feelings about other social classes, creating tension that many hope will be resolved in the upcoming elections, either with the end of the Evo Morales government or his re-election. On the other hand, as a country, we hope and want to believe that the calm before the storm will continue, however many are certain that this will not be the case in Bolivia, due to the sole objective that each of us has to impose our own idea of what is right.

Santa Cruz, Bolivia – On the street – jjspring

The political uncertainty in Bolivia has generated a polarized environment, some sure that the presidency of Evo Morales will end in the next elections, either because it was determined in a referendum or because the constitution prohibits another term. However, others believe that Morales’s ability to authorize appointments to the Constitutional Court and amendments to the law governing political parties will allow him to run again. Both the opposition and the ruling party seek to damage the image of the other, revealing their true character in their actions. The opposition has been very vocal about political persecution, with any person who presents himself as a possible candidate opposed to Evo Morales being subjected to this persecution.

Samaipata, Bolivia – Looking – Pedro Henrique Santos

All these events bring us to the moment where we have to decide, sensing the extremism, without an analysis of the proposals of each party and the reality of the administration. We are just simply taking sides politically. Many people who seek to influence this feeling at all costs use traditional media and the internet, without hesitating to lie, falsify or hide information to change people’s personal opinion.

The future of Bolivia feels politically uncertain, but it is nothing like the past which was even more complex. Nowadays the power of the “memes”, depicting the partial and biased information of the public players, has shown that personal benefits take precedence over the public good in all social and political areas. The feeling of having to decide which is the least corrupt party leaves an aftertaste of conformity.

Uyuni, Bolivia – Silhouettes – Matan Levanon

It is clear that Bolivia as a country and its population has grown in the face of adversity and has changed for the better. Our culture continues to move towards a future where technology, social networks and tradition come together, hopefully with less polarization.

Osvaldo Montano

Credits

Photo 1: Uyuni, Bolivia – Salt flat – Matan Levanon (Unsplash)

Photo 2: La Paz, Bolivia – The cityscape at night – Geziel Esteban (Unsplash)

Photo 3: La Paz, Boliva – The cityscape – Tobias Jelskov (Unsplash)

Photo 4: Copocabana, Bolivia – Tucked in – Sunny Upadhyay (Unsplash)

Photo 5: La Paz, Bolivia – On the street – NiarKrad (Shutterstock)

Photo 6: Santa Cruz, Bolivia – On the street – jjspring (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: Samaipata, Bolivia – Looking – Pedro Henrique Santos (Unsplash)

Photo 8: Uyuni, Bolivia – Silhouettes – Matan Levanon (Unsplash)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Toni Wallis

South Africa: Cities of walls

A wall divides them. The extremely poor live on one side. The ultra-rich live on the other. Extremely poor for the most part means black. Extremely rich, unfortunately, is still mostly white.

Cape Town-based photographer and anthropologist, Johnny Miller, took a series of aerial photographs1 that show how a road, a wall, a small no-man’s land of vegetation divide the rich from the poor.

Stellenbosch, South Africa – On the streets of Kayamandi township – Dmitrii Skharov

Probably the most famous image2 shows on the one side Hout Bay, an affluent seaside resort town that attracts thousands of foreign tourists and locals to its beaches and restaurants. On the other side, up on a hill is Imizamo Yethu, a 57 hectare informal settlement that is home to about 34,000 people. Devastating fires regularly rage through the shacks leaving families, who have very little anyway, with nothing at all.

Cape Town, South Africa – At Hout Bay harbor – Gimas

This image is not unique to Hout Bay/Imizamo Yethu or even Cape Town. We see it in every South African city and small town throughout our country. Sandton, South Africa’s economic powerhouse on the outskirts of Johannesburg, bordered by Alexandra, is one of the poorest and most desperate places in the country. Morningside and its adjoining golf estate in Durban are across from the Kennedy Road informal settlement. The peaceful and lush winelands of Stellenbosch abut the Kayamandi squatter camp.

Apartheid South Africa created these divided communities, a project which Miller describes as the “architecture of separation,” to promote the ideals of the white, nationalist state. People of color were forcibly removed to locations where they could become invisible.

Cape Town, South Africa – In the Khayelitsha township – meunierd

However, as South Africa has evolved, the cities have grown. Qualified professionals find better paying jobs and new opportunities in the cities, and so the demand for middle-class and high-end homes has increased. The poor too, allured by the promise of employment and a better life, have flocked to the cities. Only for them, there are no homes. Instead they compete with each other for 18 square feet of land to put up a shack and dream of a better life.

And so, as both suburbia and the slum continue to grow, the two polarities of South African society have once again come into contact. The result is often violent confrontation, and clear defiance of the twenty-four-year black government that appears to be unable or unwilling to dismantle this physical and spatial legacy of apartheid.

Cape Town, South Africa – The street – Nicole Honeywill

To a large extent, the poor and disenfranchised have given up on peacefully calling on the state to provide access to water, electricity, adequate health and education services. Instead, protests often spiral out of control – burning tires, burning buses, burning schools, burning clinics, looting, clashes with security personnel.

Our new president, Cyril Ramaphosa, has made it clear that the status quo cannot continue and is attempting to introduce some measure equality by calling for radical land reform. In part, this means expropriating land without compensation from those who previously benefitted from a system that privileged white people.

Johannesburg, South Africa – Downtown – View Apart

As one might imagine, not everyone has welcomed this call. Those of us who have land and houses suddenly fear that we may lose our homes, often our main asset. What will happen to us if we are forced to leave our homes? Not all of us can simply afford to buy something else. Losing a farm or losing a home could make many people destitute.

Nothing has been legislated yet and the government realizes that it will have to approach land reform and expropriation with care. In the meantime, for some, the proximity of Hout Bay and Imizamo Yethu is far too close for comfort.

Luanda, Angola – High rises and slums – Fabian Plock

Luanda: A city of extremes between the new elite and the masses

In Angola, the civil war left its scars. Some of the scars are on the buildings of Luanda, where in 1992, the war entered the capital for the first and last time. The result was the mass killing of opposition UNITA supporters.

After the end of the war in 2002, the MPLA-led government set out on a project of national reconstruction that sought to eliminate all evidence of the 27-year confusão (confusion), a metaphor for the civil war. During the years of war, Luanda became a safe haven, as the massacres mostly occurred in the countryside. So it happened that a city originally designed by the Portuguese for 500,000 people was bursting at the seams after the war. Today, Luanda’s population is about four million.

Luanda, Angola – Downtown – KrakenPlaces

The old colonial neighborhoods burgeoned and expanded into a sprawling chaos of formal and informal construction. Basic services such as sanitation and electricity all but collapsed in many areas.

The new arrivals from Angola’s villages and towns do not fit into the government’s narrative of a new modern Angola. The disorganized suburbs of downtown Luanda also did not fit the image of a city that would become the symbol of the quick success brought by oil wealth.

The government undertook a project of requalificação urbana (urban upgrading) to bring Luanda into the twenty-first century, but researcher Jon Schubert prefers to describe this undertaking as “spatial cleansing” to rid the city center of any remnants of war or the people that the government would rather forget, as it sets about building the New Angola.3

Luanda, Angola – Skyline – Fabian Plock

Photographs of Luanda Bay with its palm-lined streets, promenade, wide avenues and world class restaurants boasting the very best of international cuisine are impressive and represent the Angola that the government wants to show the world. In this world of modern, educated elites, there is no room for the hustlers, the matumbos (uneducated country bumpkins) or o povo (the people).

As a result, many of the downtown musseques (neighorhoods) were razed to the ground to make room for impressive skyscrapers and upmarket developments. The inhabitants of the musseques were forcibly removed without compensation and relocated to places such as the Kilamba Kiaxi housing project, some fifteen kilometers from the city center. News reports indicate that these new suburbs lack running water and electricity; sewage collects in the streets; the roads are of poor quality and it often takes more than an hour for residents to get into the city.4

Cape Town, South Africa – Strolling – Leo Moko

Apartheid polarized South Africans, and the extremities between the abundance of the rich and the poverty of the poor remain entrenched and have become a cause of conflict as the disenfranchised poor seek a share in some of the wealth, while the rich, finding themselves under siege, raise the walls that divide the two communities.

In Angola, war brought people from all walks of life together. This diversity is chaotic and unsightly to the government. So in an effort to promote a new and modern post-war country, the state has built extremity into the physical landscape. The rich elite, almost all of whom have ties to someone in government, live in the spanking new city center, while o povo, who make up the masses of the Angolan nation, have been pushed out to the extremities of the city, lamenting their demolished homes and having to get used to becoming invisible in a new kind of apartheid.

Toni Wallis

Notes

1. —- (2016). “These photos show real inequality in Cape Town,” News24, May 25.

2. Miller, Johnny (2016). “Hout Bay/Imizamo Yethu,” Unequal Scenes

3. Schubert, Jon (2017). Working the System: A Political Ethnography of the New Angola. New York: Cornell University Press, p32.

4. Faustino, Gaspar (2017). “Kilamba Kiaxi: De distrito a município, sempre à margem do desenvolvimento,” Novo Jornal, April 19.

Credits

Photo 1: South Africa – Below – Meghan Holmes (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Stellenbosch, South Africa – On the streets of Kayamandi township – Dmitrii Skharov (Shutterstock)

Photo 3: Cape Town, South Africa – At Hout Bay harbor – Gimas (Shutterstock)

Photo 4: Cape Town, South Africa – In the Khayelitsha township – meunierd (Shutterstock)

Photo 5: Cape Town, South Africa – The street – Nicole Honeywill (Unsplash)

Photo 6: Johannesburg, South Africa – Downtown – View Apart (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: Luanda, Angola – High rises and slums – Fabian Plock (Shutterstock)

Photo 8: Luanda, Angola – Downtown – KrakenPlaces (Shutterstock)

Photo 9: Luanda, Angola – Skyline – Fabian Plock (Shutterstock)

Photo 10: Cape Town, South Africa – Strolling – Leo Moko (Unsplash)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Andreea Sepi

Another election, another extremist candidate, another worrying result. More inflammatory rhetoric. Noi contra lor. Ei contra noastră. The us versus them ideology is making a surprising comeback after decades of glorified globalization. It would seem that, all of a sudden, people are discovering how precious and worthy of preservation their neck of the woods is.

Except that it’s not even about that.

Extremism is not about the world as patchwork: a beautiful quilt in which each individual square, delicately delineated, carries the charm of carefully preserved local embroidery. It is about ripping out the other squares entirely. It is about replacing diversity with uniformity in fear of losing one’s patch of earth in a sea of unfamiliar otherness.

Hamburg, Germany – Alter Elbtunnel – Philipp Deus

It is about keeping it separate. Different quilts, different beds, different rooms. If possible, different planets. Extremism (both left and right) is about the monopoly on righteousness and the policy of outrage. It is the obliteration of the individual. It is the ideology of black and white and the blotting out of grey areas. It is the doing away with civility for the sake of percentages and power.

Living side by side (especially when no one has asked your opinion about that) can be stressful. Why not declare it outright unbearable? Why all the relativity? Why all the concern for the other’s concerns? Wouldn’t a system of absolutes be more soothing? Politicians running for office use this for political gain, and – with negativity and impact all too often the main criteria for newsworthiness – it is no wonder the media is also stoking the fire.

Bucharest, Romania – Waiting for the subway – Radu Bercan

Pushing extreme views inevitably leads to polarization because it paints the world in stark contrasts, forcing people to position themselves in an oversimplified dichotomy. The range of possible responses is reduced to allegiance and enmity. Reflected, nuanced opinions are replaced by knee-jerk reactions and reductionist thinking. Shutting out or shouting down the opponent – now perceived as deviant and dangerous – seems to be the only option left. In the battle for the minds and votes of the people, poison and vitriol are no longer off-limits. Polarization and raw discourse go hand in hand.

Extremism is the politics of frustration – and there seems to be a lot of frustration going around these days. In many countries, an increasing share of the population feels excluded from what they perceive as rightfully theirs. Whether this is objective truth or subjective (perhaps even induced) perception is not clear. We feel cheated out of something. Some piece of some pie. An identity. Some essential security in life. We begrudge the rest their access, and would rather shrink the pie than let others come out ahead. In Germany, we call it Schadenfreude. In Romania, it’s called “să moară şi capra vecinului” (the neighbor’s goat should also die).

Heidelberg, Germany – In the pedestrian zone – Chireau

In Germany, a spiral of polarization gained momentum in response to Angela Merkel’s “Wir schaffen das” (We can do it) immigration policies. After the summer of 2015 was over, the first challenges appeared and the fears decanted. The water seemed clear on the surface, but deep down, the sand was turbid and unsettled. A country that had long resisted the creation of a controlled immigration framework now discovered the aftertaste of uncontrolled immigration. Western Germany began to feel crowded and heterogenous – years of economic migration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and a recent wave of Middle Eastern and African refugees were showing up in the social fabric. In the depopulated East, which still lags behind economically, middle-aged blue-collar workers and the long-term unemployed began to fear that young male immigrants would be offered the free ride (and, possibly, the women!) that the locals had been denied.

The initial enthusiasm faded. The desire to help and wipe away the stigma of the past was replaced by concerns about limited resources and social norms which must be kept in place. Physical constraints and cultural differences became apparent. Not enough staff, not enough place, long processes. Conflicts among migrants, traumas imported. Refugee shelters sprang up in the vicinity of parks, in school gyms and on the outskirts of ethnically homogenous villages. The country did by no means plunge into chaos, but there were cracks in the hallowed façade of German efficiency. Inexplicable security glitches.

Munich, Germany – Restless – Kinga Cichewicz

A few immigrants committed unthinkable acts of violence. The vast majority didn’t. A few locals built fences – or worse. The vast majority didn’t. Still, basic psychology kicked in. And basic psychology says, we tend to associate good qualities with the in-group (“us”) and to view occasional deviance in the out-group as proof of something systemically wrong with “them,” a generalized fault. The foreigner becomes the virus that spreads unchecked, infecting our way of doing things. Some municipalities put out multilingual flyers which included advice on how to separate one’s trash, how to observe Ruhezeiten and where to wash one’s car. Others watched in horror as the container for recycled paper got filled with smelly meal rests – and fumed. Overcrowded daycare centers, a shortage of teachers and public servants, poor transportation and decaying public services did the rest. When we are on the edge, we look for quick, simple fixes.

Cluj, Romania – Different generations – Oana Pughineanu

In Romania, polarization takes place roughly along educational rifts and the urban-rural divide. The westernized urban elites in one corner; the older working class and the traditionalist rural population in another. Dissenters and acquiescers of the regime, old and new. Often within the same family. We talk past each other, neither side able to resonate with the other’s viewpoint. The bubbles are closed and far apart. We watch different TV stations, we vote predictably and at different ends of the spectrum. The differences between our respective “realities,” our life choices and our interpretation of (fragmentary) information have reached Orwellian proportions.

Maramures, Romania – In the depths – Melinda Nagy

Some yearn for post-modern freedoms and exemplary justice; the others for agrarian-age conservatism and iron fists: So what if they steal a little, doesn’t everybody? The former reject the past and look eagerly into the future. The latter are deeply nostalgic. Some of us prefer hard facts, others counter with idealized narratives or conspiracy theories. There is a cultural battle raging between the advocates of individualism and those of collectivism, a divide between national efficiency and national conceit, between short-term benefits and long-term sustainability. Between impartial institutions and informal, privately-negotiated solutions. There is a face-off between the patriotism of festive speeches and traditions, and the patriotism of ethics and hard work.

Cluj, Romania – Faces – Oana Pughineanu

There are many areas of disagreement and discord. But they all boil down to two main issues: wealth and political power. What are the acceptable ways to acquire wealth and to wield political power? What degree of arbitrariness and privilege are we – as a society – willing to allow, and what level of accountability do we expect? How are wealth, power, and the country’s resources to be shared and managed? What behaviors do we tolerate, trust, and reinforce? How much idealism, realism, or cynicism should our recipe for the future allow? But instead of dialogue, we have a series of absurd, shrill monologues overlapping each other. Facts are met with alternative facts or no facts at all. Propaganda and scorn.

How are we going to get past this? Why do we bind ourselves into a Gordian knot and then yearn for the sword that sorts it all out? Who is going to take responsibility for the (potentially destructive) outcome? Who is going to uphold the logos and turn down the intemperate pathos?

Berlin, Germany – World Clock at Berlin Alexanderplatz – ArminStaudt

Polarization robs our quilts of their seams and nuances. Things become unicolored and mass-produced. Things suddenly become incompatible with each other. We become incompatible with each other. We lose empathy. The polarized society is made up of two opposing camps in a constant state of siege. Where there used to be dialogue, there is mistrust and moats. We no longer look at each other, we keep an eye on each other.

The other has become illegitimate, the perpetrator of all evils, someone not worth listening to, someone vilified. We are being pushed into camps, into extremes. The middle ground is a mined field. Unaffiliated persons are seen as traitors by both sides. Attempting to build bridges, to use reason and point out how the other side might have some valid concerns gets you labelled as a traitor.

Cluj-Napoca, Romania – Playing – Val Vesa

Perhaps (hopefully!) polarization is only a moment in time, a swing of the pendulum in its inexorable movement towards a new equilibrium. People do not become polarized for nothing. “Nu iese foc fără fum,” the Romanians say. There is no smoke without a fire. Extremism is not only a rejection of the center, it is also a feeling that the center is feckless or ineffectual. It is a cry for help and a form of testing one’s power. It is an appeal for a different vision, for less taboos in the conversation. We should initiate that conversation before the camps become so hardened in conflict that the only remaining option becomes “zusammen in den Abgrund.

We don’t want the abyss to be the only place we can still go together.

Andreea Sepi

Secondary literature

Bell A. (1991). The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.

DEUTSCHE WELLE (2017). Refugee centers in Germany suffer near daily attacks. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/refugee-centers-in-germany-suffer-near-daily-attacks/a-41250754 (12.11.2018)

DIE ZEIT (2015). Flüchtlinge: Union streitet über Merkels „Wir schaffen das“-Politik. Retrieved from https://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2015-09/angela-merkel-fluechtlinge-cdu-partei-kritik (12.11.2018)

Glasl, F. (1980). Konfliktmanagement. Diagnose und Behandlung von Konflikten in Organisationen. Haupt: Bern, Switzerland.

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS (2017). Germany: The Development of Migration and Citizenship Law in Postwar Germany. Retrieved from https://www.loc.gov/law/help/migration-citizenship/migration-citizenship-law-postwar-germany.pdf (12.11.2018)

Mensing, B. (2016). ‘Othering’ in the news media: Are migrants attacking the ‘Fortress Europe’? Retrieved from https://essay.utwente.nl/70410/1/Mensing_BA_Faculty%20of%20Behavioural,%20Management%20and%20Social%20Sciences.pdf (12.11.2018)

NEW YORK TIMES (2018). One Legacy of Merkel? Angry East German Men Fueling the Far Right. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com/2018/11/05/world/europe/merkel-east-germany-nationalists-populism.html (10.11.2018)

Van Dijk, T. A. (2000). New(s) racism: A discourse analytical approach. Ethnic minorities and the media Buckingham, UK & Philadelphia.

ZIARE.com (2018). PSD, aproape doi ani de viol politic in grup. Nu suntem doar victime. Retrieved from http://www.ziare.com/politica/politica-interna/psd-aproape-doi-ani-de-viol-in-grup-nu-suntem-doar-victime-interviu-1536831 (05.11.2018)

Credits

Photo 1: Iași, Romania – Covered – Radu Florin (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Hamburg, Germany – Alter Elbtunnel – Philipp Deus (Unsplash)

Photo 3: Bucharest, Romania – Waiting for the subway – Radu Bercan (Shutterstock)

Photo 4: Heidelberg, Germany – In the pedestrian zone – Chireau (Shutterstock)

Photo 5: Munich, Germany – Restless – Kinga Cichewicz (Unsplash)

Photo 6: Cluj, Romania – Different generations – Oana Pughineanu (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: Maramures, Romania – In the depths – Melinda Nagy (Shutterstock)

Photo 8: Cluj, Romania – Faces – Oana Pughineanu (Shutterstock)

Photo 9: Berlin, Germany – World Clock at Berlin Alexanderplatz – ArminStaudt

Photo 10: Cluj-Napoca, Romania – Playing – Val Vesa (Unsplash)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Alejandra Baccino

What is it about polarization that comes so naturally to humans? In countries where the culture and the sense of nation revolves around soccer, kids are taught about extremes early on. They learn to love their team, to have themed birthday parties with the colors that represent them and to cry when they lose or – with an unexpected, last minute goal – win.

Cartagena, Columbia – Soccer in the square – Gary C. Tognoni

Soccer fan’s passion only grows stronger when there is a common rival – usually another team from the same city. This rivalry, built on year after year of competition, helps to cement our own passion for our team. From a young age we are taught, not only to love a team and its colors, but also to despise the rival team and everything related to it. As we grow old, we get less excited about our wins than about the other team’s losses. We don´t question this passion for our team and the dislike for its rival. It is what it is because it has been like that as long as we can remember. We don´t ask ourselves if it is right or wrong, and we take extreme action in order to defend or root for our colors.

Montevideo, Uruguay – The match – Greta Schölderle Moller

A few foster and even encourage this hatred for the sole purpose of filling their pockets with money. They make use of an organized subculture of hinchas (fans) that are so lost in this misconception of “passion” that they end up killing other fans out of an idea of “respect” for the team that they have come to idolize, in order to fulfill their self-created sense of importance. This type of polarization is easily recognized. Is either black or white, there is no place for grey. This conception will remain the same throughout our lives and we will transfer it as it is to the next generation. What happened in the final of the Libertadores Cup in November of 2018, between Boca and River, is a sad yet poignant example of this negative polarization (one of the team’s buses was attacked by fans).

Iquitos, Peru – Belen market – Jess Kraft

But what happens when this polarization takes place within ourselves? When, over the course of some years, we turn from defending one extreme to supporting the exact opposite? This is a recurrent trend in South America and it has been more noticeable since the beginning of the 21st century. After decades of right-wing governments on the continent, things began to change. Disappointed with the economy and social policies, left wing movements in various countries started to become more and more popular, and an increasing number of followers began to demand change. Finally, 20 years ago, the shift towards the left wing started in Venezuela and other countries soon followed, establishing a new cycle of social policies and a left-wing economic approach.

Santa Clara, Cuba – Communication – Ludovic Farine

In the strongest economies of South America, Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, one left-wing term was followed by another, with candidates beating their opponents by major differences. This was considered a huge victory for those who had fought to have the right to democratically vote in favor of the left. Let us not forget that during the 70s South America suffered an epidemic of widespread right-wing dictatorships in the greater context of the Cold War. During that time, political expression against the dictatorship was forbidden regardless of the party it represented and many of those who showed any communist or socialist tendencies were persecuted, tortured and killed. This left a deep mark in South American societies as a reminder to never have their liberties taken again. Therefore, after all the struggles and following a huge financial crisis in the region, people turned to the left-wing and celebrated its success, hoping for a better future with equal opportunities and less poverty.

Olinda, Brazil – Celebrating the Frevo carnival – Adam Gregor

But over the years a change in tide began as people´s hopes were met with disappointment, and the dreams of a just society were destroyed by incompetence, cronyism and corruption on a larger scale. People’s discontent has become evident during the presidential elections in Chile and Argentina, where a moderate right-wing party was elected, and in the Organization of American States’ permanent calls for the Venezuelan government to be transparent.

In Brazil, where scandals have hit so many high-profile politicians and the investigation regarding Odebrecht is still continuing, the soil was fertile for the cultivation of change as Brazilians were shocked by the corruption and white-collar crimes committed by those they had believed in. The economy was also under real stress, and criminality was perceived to be the highest in decades. The decision to host the World Cup in soccer and the Olympics in 2014 and 2016 respectively gave rise to a feeling of hopelessness among the people because they felt that money could be invested in more important things.

Sao Paulo, Brazil – The Mercado Municipal – R.M. Nunes

In October 2018, Bolsonaro won the presidential election in Brazil. It was met both with joy and despair by the leaders of the region and the world. This article doesn´t aim to judge whether Bolsonaro was the better choice or even to criticize the election. My intention is to leave all politics aside and focus on the human beings behind it, their nuances, their fears and the light they needed to keep going. Bolsonaro is, without a doubt, a far right-wing leader with strong opinions about economics, justice, feminism and minorities. Despite his alleged and confirmed statements regarding women, blacks, homosexuals and other sexual orientations, many representatives of these minorities not only did vote for him, but also defended Bolsonaro against his detractors.

Brazil – Yemanja party – Vinicius Tupinamba

What is interesting about this election is that Bolsonaro won with more than half of the votes, meaning that a large number of those votes came from people who had voted for the left wing in previous elections. One cannot help but wonder what could have brought them to vote not only against their principles but, in many cases, against their own beliefs? Are we all extremists in our own inner selves? This phenomenon isn´t different from what is happening in the rest of South America, where only Maduro remains as the last major representative of socialism. I strongly believe that like everything in this world, we, as individuals, perceive things differently depending on the circumstances and according to our unique experiences. Therefore, I don´t think this polarization responds to anything other than a change of circumstances. This perception varies depending on the receiver: poor, gay, rich, woman, man, religious, atheist, among others. The important thing to bear in mind is that mostly everyone, especially when there is no personal gain, does what they truly believe is best. Hence, we can extrapolate this to the recent changes in the South American region, where many minorities set aside their individuality and voted for something that they thought was the best option given the circumstances, even if that meant selflessly relegating themselves to second place.

Cartagena, Columbia – Gathering – Mikadun (Shutterstock)

The ever-changing circumstances and the capacity to keep questioning ourselves, even when we believe that we have the right answer, is what makes us human, and fortunately what will make us evolve into more caring societies despite those who think mostly of themselves. Sometimes though, certain extreme ideas are embedded in ourselves, without questioning and without reason, as in the first case with soccer where there is only enough place for hatred and hostility. Fortunately, something that took so long to build can be transformed quite easily, if we only learned to be more respectful of our fellow peers, and whatever principles each individual decides to defend and live by.

In summary, polarization is a part of human nature. We can either chose to analyze it and draw conclusions to make positive changes in our behavior, or take it to be a revealed truth and live by it accordingly, knowing that we will be an accomplice to hatred and retrogression.

Alejandra Baccino

Credits

Photo 1: Argentina – Viedma Glacier – Jackman Chiu (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Cartagena, Columbia – Soccer in the square – Gary C. Tognoni (Shutterstock)

Photo 3: Montevideo, Uruguay – The match – Greta Schölderle Moller (Unsplash)

Photo 4: Iquitos, Peru – Belen market – Jess Kraft (Shutterstock)

Photo 5: Santa Clara, Cuba – Communication – Ludovic Farine (Shutterstock)

Photo 6: Olinda, Brazil – Celebrating the Frevo carnival – Adam Gregor (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: Sao Paulo, Brazil – The Mercado Municipal – R.M. Nunes (Shutterstock)

Photo 8: Brazil – Yemanja party – Vinicius Tupinamba (Shutterstock)

Photo 9: Cartagena, Columbia – Gathering – Mikadun (Shutterstock)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 5 – Germany and Romania – Andreea Sepi
CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Veronica Cordido

The people of Venezuela are divided into two political groups – Chavismo and the opposition. There has been extreme violence with riots in multiple parts of the country where over 100 people have died so far in protests. Students throw stones and Molotov cocktails as the army shoots rubber bullets, and sometimes real bullets, aimed point black at the heads and faces of the first line of protesters. Some have been run over by tanks and others have almost lost their lives from the force of water cannons. News of all this has circled the world through pictures, and it is just a typical day, nowadays, in the capital of Caracas.

Caracas, Venezuela – Government protests – Reynaldo Riobueno

And then there is extreme criminality as well, so extreme, that it’s common for armed motorcyclists to rob cars adjacent to them as you wait at a traffic light. Most people look away and let the robbery happen. It has become so common and so dangerous that we feel helpless. And what about the police? They might not want to get involved either. Criminals are better trained and armed than cops are and in some cases they are even neighbors who “run” the same block.

Valencia, Venezuela – Riding – Jose Francisco Morales

As if all this is not enough, we have extreme corruption, an extremely dysfunctional economy, extreme hyperinflation, extreme shortages of food and medicine, extreme poverty, extreme suffering, extreme chaos and, as never before, even extremist Islamic groups like Hezbollah.

There have been 173 official cases where it has been determined that Venezuela, a country that is not able to issue passports to its own people due to lack of supplies and working equipment, has issued Venezuelan documentation to people with ties to Islamic extremists to travel to other countries with Venezuelan documents.

Venezuela – Refracted – Luis Machado

In addition, Venezuelans have been exposed to an extreme socio-economic meltdown over the last few years. Middle-class families have disappeared; they have become part of the colossal impoverishment of the country and have no access to foreign currencies, while upper-class families have grown richer from doing business in a foreign currency, especially in dollars and euros.

There have been many people who, in order to avoid extreme poverty, have decided to “traffic” food and other scarce items and sell them on the black market at “scalpers” prices. It is illegal for anyone except the government to sell “regulated” products, which are those products distributed only by the government and at controlled prices and quantities due to their scarcity.

Maracaibo, Venezuela – In town – amnat

There is also a marked division between the opposition and supporters of the regime. The food basket that the government gives out to the people can only be obtained by holders of a special card called: “Carnet de la Patria,” which is only given to Chavistas and Maduristas who then are forced to vote for the regime and do lots of pro-government things such as marching, protesting and wearing their symbols and apparel. If not? The government threatens, the government punishes, the government sets up and imprisons.

When it comes to the economy, hyperinflation reached one million percent this year according to Forbes. Most Venezuelans now live way below the poverty line, and I would even say that many are living way below that, they are living in postwar conditions.

Merida, Venezuela – Waiting at the supermarket – Watch The World

Why do I say that? Because the official state of being in poverty does cover meals, meaning, you are probably able to semi-afford food, a one dollar meal perhaps? In Venezuela, however, there is no food, and the food you can find, is sold at dollar prices and only the lucky Venezuelan who is able to make $10 a month, definitively not what you earn under the minimum wage, can afford this food.

That has forced thousands of Venezuelans to flee the country, even by foot, walking weeks and weeks to reach neighboring countries, some even dying on the way to get there. And what about those who stay behind? Many are eating out of trash cans when they eat. Others are fainting and giving up their kids since they are unable to feed them. The situation is really extreme. They don’t give up their kids because they don’t love them enough; they give up their kids because they love them too much to witness their death.

Ologa, Venezuela – Life on stilt houses – sunsinger

Even when it comes to migrating, Venezuela shows its extremes. There are people who have profited from all the scarcity the country faces and have migrated under investor visas while the majority of their fellow Venezuelans must suffer and work illegally, doing what no one wants to do and getting paid what no one would consider enough, only to be able to stay afloat and help those they left behind.

The situation in Venezuela has gotten so extreme that, especially in Caracas, many of the massive, dangerous riots take place in areas neighboring some of Caracas’s major clinics, which more than once have had to raise their “Red Cross flags” to signal a neutral zone and protect their patients from getting bombarded by tear gas and bullets, an act that has not stopped the ongoing bombardment nonetheless. If the government doesn’t stop it, who will?

Caracas, Venezuela – Protests – Edgloris Marys

And perhaps the best example to illustrate the extreme crisis nowadays in Venezuela is the number of kids and adults that lose their lives due to the national emergency in the area of healthcare because of the shortage and even complete lack of hospital supplies and pharmaceutical drugs.

Doctors in Venezuela are heroes and warriors, they operate with the assistance of cellphone flashlights during the constant, countless blackouts that clinics and hospitals experience every day, and they even get jailed and beaten up by government officials when they stand up for their rights and the rights of their patients in the countless protests that take place in the country.

Choroni, Venezuela – Do it yourself – Davide Bonaldo

They see people die who they could have easily saved with the help of antibiotics or a catheter, and they are struggling to survive hyperinflation like everyone else since they don’t make any more money than the police officers, the waiters or the bank tellers. They are always hanging by the thread of all the extremes that make Venezuela one of the best examples of the worst type of policy that there is and ever will be.

It’s like living in an apocalypse or the outcome of a successful New World Order agenda to diminish the population, as Venezuelans are dying silently and slowly. Venezuelan politicians are murderers. It isn’t the 100+ who have died in protests, it’s the many mothers who have lost their children to a high fever turning into meningitis due to a lack of medicine or the grandparents who have died because they could no longer find or afford their medication. And the list goes on, and on, as we hang by extremes.

Veronica Cordido

Credits

Photo 1: Caracas, Venezuela – Standing – Andrés Gerlotti (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Caracas, Venezuela – Government protests – Reynaldo Riobueno (Shutterstock)

Photo 3: Valencia, Venezuela – Riding – Jose Francisco Morales (Unsplash)

Photo 4: Venezuela – Refracted – Luis Machado (Unsplash)

Photo 5: Maracaibo, Venezuela – In town – amnat (Shutterstock)

Photo 6: Merida, Venezuela – Waiting at the supermarket – Watch The World (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: Caracas, Venezuela – Protests – Edgloris Marys (Shutterstock)

Photo 8: Choroni, Venezuela – Do it yourself – Davide Bonaldo (Shutterstock)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 4 – South America – Alejandra Baccion
CW 5 – Germany and Romania – Andreea Sepi
CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Joana Alencar

My grandfather used to say:

“Em casa onde falta pão, todo mundo briga e ninguém tem razão.”

“In a home where there´s no bread, everyone fights, and nobody is right.” (A popular saying in Brazil)

I couldn´t agree with him more.

Brasilia, Brazil – Pro and contra impeachment – Juca Varella

The last few years in Brazil have been challenging for most of us, Brazilian citizens.

We have experienced many highs and lows in our society and its economy for a while now.

But this period, the biggest economic crisis in our history, has also come along with a devastating decrease in our standard of living as well as the widespread perception of a deeply corrupt political system. This combination looks terrible on a daily basis, but beyond that, it has also led us to a desperate desire for change, radical change.

São Paulo, Brazil – Waiting – Denys Argyriou

The Brazilian left-wing Workers Party (PT) governed Brazil for 14 years.

It inherited a country already economically stable and ready to improve, but still lacking the social changes we needed to make progress in the battle against poverty.

During its first few years in power, it increased social aid programs and pushed millions out of poverty to create a new middle class. It was wonderful to believe that we were finally on the right path to prosperity.

But this new middle class was not financially independent, and most of the improvement was subsidized by government money, which took us a while to realize.

As time passed, huge corruption scandals shook the country, paralyzed the government and the economy, breaking our fragile stability, and leading to the impeachment of a president for bypassing congress to finance deficit spending by the government.

The investigations revealed that popular politicians from many different parties and successful businessmen were involved in bribery, collusion and kickbacks. An outrageous number of Brazilian representatives (352 of 594) are currently under investigation.

São Paulo, Brazil – Avenida Jornalista Roberto Marinho – Denys Argyriou

The country was ready to riot. Calls for change exploded in 2016, and people took to the streets for the largest protests in our history.

Government supporters and their opponents became locked in a permanent battle.

At that time the country began to split.

Most left-wing PT followers believed and promoted the idea that every person supporting impeachment was an extreme right-wing enthusiast, and this view reinforced the growing polarization.

Most supporters of impeachment believed and argued that the left-wing government was truly responsible for unleashing uncontrollable corruption that had co-opted the political system and brought Brazil to the brink of bankruptcy. For now, this is the belief of the majority.

After some years of gaining confidence in our improvement, we were taken by surprise as we encountered the strong feeling of vulnerability that has led us to fear, anger and an extreme polarization of our society.

During the turmoil of this last presidential election, some Brazilians, from both sides, began to think that whoever holds a different opinion was a radical opponent, supporting a very destructive political scheme, like an enemy not to be trusted.

Maringá, Brazil – Reflected – Laura Marques

However, a 2017 survey called “Crisis Perceptions” (published by Gallup World Poll and FGV) shows that our core issues are not ideological as many may believe, but purely survival.

We are second to last among the 124 countries surveyed in “fear of violence,” “disbelief in the political system” and “a lack of confidence in the state.”

You can gain an idea of how we feel if you compare us to other countries. For example, only Afghanistan ranks worse than us in the category of “feel unsafe walking at night in their home area” (Brazil: 68%) and only Bosnia ranks worse than us in “do not trust the federal government” (Brazil: 82%).

São Paulo, Brazil – Protests – Marcelo Camargo

Operação Lava Jato (Car Wash Operation), an ongoing criminal investigation being carried out by the federal police, discovered the biggest corruption scandal in Latin America´s history.

The misappropriation of public assets by billionaires should be viewed against the increases in violent crime, which accounted for a record high number of 64 thousand deaths in 2017. Our daily fear gives us the impression that we are already living in a war against crime.

That feeling is strong. It is shared by the upper, middle and lower classes, and it´s breeding a movement of intolerance with everything related to crime and government corruption, which, for many Brazilians, includes the Brazilian left-wing. The urge to reduce violence in order to prevent total chaos led us to vote against the political establishment inherited from the Worker´s Party.

Mr. Bolsonaro, the right-wing candidate from a small party, was elected president despite his highly conservative statements that offended many and caused thousands of women to protest, shouting “Ele não” (“Not him”), in mass demonstrations throughout the country.

The answer to the “Not him” movement was another movement called “Eles não” (“Not them”), not anyone remotely related to the Worker´s Party.

São Paulo, Brazil – Rua Cardeal Arcoverde – Philip Sampaio

Maybe we could call this political moment a Breakdown of the Brazilian State.

This scenario inevitably feeds extremism, which has emerged from an absence of hope and infiltrated our citizens in desperation. We can´t deny that the lethargy is gone. These are passionate times.

Many want to see the former political system come crashing down and many are calling for order and a reduction in the scope of the federal government. A wish that is consistent with some of the new president’s promises, at least in terms of the economy, when he says “Mais Brasil e menos Brasília,” which means “More Brazil and less Brasília (Brazil´s capital, where most of the political scandals occurred).”

We are feeling a kind of sharp aversion to the government, a feeling that we simply can´t suppress, and that doesn´t fit in any left-wing program.

Most voters chose to reject the Worker´s Party for someone we may not entirely agree with. For us, the result of this very polarized election, that ended friendships and pulled families apart, represents more of a collapse of the left than a victory of the right.

Poços de Caldas, Brazil – Downtown – Vinícius Henrique

But while all share this wish to put Brazil back on the right track, we are surrounded by a hybrid war between ideological opponents that is indeed very stressful.

This war between political opponents has drawn attention in a way that may hide what´s really defining most of our citizens’ worries and choices.

Brazilians never cared much about political parties or ideologies. This issue never reached the base of our society. That is so true that although the elected president won in every state in four of the five Brazilian regions (he lost only in the northeast, the poorest and less educated area of Brazil), this election showed a new record with a 60% increase in invalid ballots.

Rocinha, Brazil – From Rocinha in the favella – Rasmus Bang

The truth is that this last election was ruled by fear and disgust.

Fake news and misleading contents poured out from both sides.

The left-wing candidate himself, Mr. Haddad, used national television to accuse Mr. Bolsonaro´s Vice President, General Mourão, of being a torturer during the Brazilian Dictatorship. But Mr. Mourão was only 16 years old and still in school at that time.

The right-wing candidate, Mr. Bolsonaro, accused Mr. Haddad, as the former PT Minister of Education, of promoting homosexuality from kindergarteners to high schoolers. But the educational program in discussion was focused on schools’ staff and teachers to avoid homophobia.

Volta Redonda, Brazil – Peeping out – Talles Alves

Falsehoods increased hate on both sides and, since social media played a big part in this election, were spread everywhere, turning into jokes, memes and street fights. However, there is a preference for this form of news. Maybe e-democracy will have to learn how to live with fake news and handle it wisely, since we are all tired of fancy marketing campaigns and hunger for some spontaneity, even if it´s full of slip-ups in speeches, blunders or even awfully disgusting online hate. It´s risky, but we prefer it to propaganda, especially after knowing that a lot of money from corruption was used to support expensive reelection campaigns.

We´ll have to learn how to check what is true and what is not before starting to hate each other for nothing.

Nonetheless, in this environment, most voters chose to reject the ruling party for someone we may not entirely agree with. We will see what the result is.

It should be repeated: “In a home where there´s no bread, everyone fights, and nobody is right.”

Joana Alencar

Credits

Photo 1: Jaboticatubas, Brazil – Birds on a wire – Ronaldo de Oliveira (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Brasilia, Brazil – Pro and contra impeachment – Juca Varella (Wikicommons)

Photo 3: São Paulo, Brazil – Waiting – Denys Argyriou (Unsplash)

Photo 4: São Paulo, Brazil – Avenida Jornalista Roberto Marinho – Denys Argyriou (Unsplash)

Photo 5: Maringá, Brazil – Reflected – Laura Marques (Unsplash)

Photo 6: São Paulo, Brazil – Protests – Marcelo Camargo (Wikicommons)

Photo 7: São Paulo, Brazil – Rua Cardeal Arcoverde – Philip Sampaio (Unsplash)

Photo 8: Poços de Caldas, Brazil – Downtown – Vinícius Henrique (Unsplash)

Photo 9: Rocinha, Brazil – From Rocinha in the favella – Rasmus Bang (Unsplash)

Photo 10: Volta Redonda, Brazil – Peeping out – Talles Alves (Unsplash)

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 3 – Venezuela – Veronica Cordido
CW 4 – South America – Alejandra Baccion
CW 5 – Germany and Romania – Andreea Sepi
CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Mavi Romano

Of all the benefactors of mankind, my favorite is Prometheus. His audacity provoked the wrath of Zeus when he discovered that Prometheus had given fire to the human race. The latter feared that our mortal species could not defend against the attack of beasts in an inhospitable world without a basic element of survival. Thanks to fire, humans were inventing increasingly precise and sophisticated tools at the same time that their body and brain evolved and created the first cultural forms along with the appearance of language.1 However, Zeus seemed to know that if a mortal race could take possession of technological development, that mortal race would end up stripping the gods of Olympus of their power over the world and would take their place in the form of totalitarianism. Several centuries later, Nietzsche’s Zarathustra shouted to the crowd gathered in the market that God had died and that they should not cling to supernatural hopes. He announced the arrival of a chaotic and uncertain time that humans would have to face by changing the meaning of their own actions on earth.2

Barcelona, Spain – Sagrada Familia – Ruben dos Santos

When you turn on a television set, it is not difficult to understand why the crowd does not yet get to decode Nietzsche’s metaphors. The mass media are part of the premise that we are all made equal and that we all want the same thing. An elite accumulates a certain economic power, often greater than the GDP of a whole nation, and aspires to dominate the meaning of life of the masses. Most media offer low quality information produced by a corporate elite. Entire populations have disappeared, and governments have been demolished in the name of humanitarianism and democracy since the origin of the concept of “humanitarian war.” That information is provided in a NATO member country and we finance that war by paying our taxes. The collateral civil victims of the wars, the waves of refugees, the tortured and the sex slaves on our televisions – if they appear – are very distant. In that way, it is not easy to establish a direct relationship between their misfortunes and our tax contribution to the growing budgets of the Ministry of Defense of a NATO member country.

Malaga, Spain – At work – No-Mad

How did we get here? The time of social democratic states has passed. We woke up one morning hearing that public sector debt was increasing and that the accounts were not in balance any more. The Eastern front had fallen, and Western states no longer needed to counterbalance the Soviet system. Although I suspect that the foundations of our modern age are deeper and began to settle when the Western man based the justification for dominating the world on the certainty of their own intellectual capacity (thinking, measurement or control). Cogito ergo sum. After the death of the last Western God and with confidence in the foundation of their own existence, the West has been extinguishing innumerable populations, languages, worldviews, gods, as their will to power extends across the planet. Following human and cultural genocides, the surviving non-Western population is assimilated as a minority and integrated into the imbalance of a global trading system.

Valencia, Spain – Near the park – Mimohe

“The bigger your market, Montag, the less you handle controversy, remember that!”, says Beatty, ironically a well-read man, in Fahrenheit 451 to explain that censorship happened because the people allowed it.3 The current entertainment and social networking industry occupies most of the free time of the masses. Old spatial frontiers have disappeared for most of the physical and digital goods, and the time for reflection has been occupied by an accelerated consumption of prefabricated fiction, oblivious to melancholy and concern. Life accelerates. States and nations have lost their military, cultural, economic and social sovereignty. Fierce football leagues, sado-pornography and immediate pleasure dominate everything after work to liberate the masses from their internal tensions in a semi-forced submission because they do not find other ways to escape. The nostalgic ones of the previous war order – whose only logic is the polarity of “us or them” – are shocked by the growing social and economic uncertainty. The political extreme right is spreading through the central and peripheral countries of the West. In Spain, while state media are distracting their audience from any manifestation of the extreme right, the main central political parties are delegitimizing the critical voices and justifying the suppression of more elemental human rights regarding political prisoners and the persecution of freedom of expression in the name of, ironically, judicial independence and separation of powers.

Malaga, Spain – Connected – No-Mad

How can a person with intellectual, environmental, social, political concerns, a creative person or a person endowed with excessive honesty survive in a totalitarian time without gods? Living according to a critical idea that opposes structures of abusive power does not bring any certainty to our very existence. Every year, the number of environmental activists murdered worldwide by paramilitary forces is growing and more than half are from Latin America. Dozens of languages disappear throughout the world each year.

Valencia, Spain – Walking down the street – Mimohe

To follow Nietzsche’s recommendations and change the meaning of our actions in life, we would need three things, as Professor Faber explains to Montag, in Ray Bradbury’s novel: quality information, free time to reflect, and the right to undertake actions based on our reflections.4 We can use our free time to think about how to create ways of life that are less dependent on the natural resources of countries at the periphery of our systems, such as permaculture, bioconstruction, renewable energies and the cultivation of a large part of our food in small orchards.

La Orotava, Spain – On the day of Corpus Christi

Arts, philosophy, literature and music offer various aspects of the same issue. Like an earthquake, they can cause the ground to move under our feet, making us doubt any certainty we assumed as common sense and possibly a thought acquired through the continuous bombardment of the media. They who seek freedom, seek to know the world. Most of it is contained in books, especially those of the past. Personally, a decade ago, I found a couple of books that allowed me to understand politics and ethics beyond some codes imposed by the logic of domination and war: Politics of Friendship by Jacques Derrida5 and Otherwise of Being, or Beyond Essence by Emmanuel Lévinas.6 Respecting the emptiness in the old place that was occupied by gods allows us to reflect again on the classic question of the limits of our knowledge and understand our identity as an affirmation of the other, of the different, of those who are not like me and thanks to whom I can be defined. From the failed Nietzsche, we get the possibility of understanding relations in the world like some Greek thinkers did before Plato, when the gods had been dead for a short time and humans had not yet dared to take their place. At that time, philosophy had just displaced myths as a way to understand the world, and the immense freedom of thought was enjoyable.

Mavi Romano

Notes

1 See André Leroi-Gourhan, Le Gest et la Parole. Technique et langage, Éditions Albin Michel, 1964.

2 Friedrich Nietzsche, Also sprach Zarathustra, 1883.

3.Ray Bradbury, Farenheit 451, 1953.

4 Ray Bradbury, op.cit.

5 Jacques Derrida, Politics of Friendship, 1997.

6 Emmanuel Lévinas, Autrement qu’être ou au-delà de l’essence, 1974.

Credits

Photo 1: Loiu, Spain – Bilbau airport – Bernard Hermant (Unsplash)

Photo 2: Barcelona, Spain – Sagrada Familia – Ruben dos Santos (Unsplash)

Photo 3: Malaga, Spain – At work – No-Mad-1280×720 (Shutterstock)

Photo 4: Valencia, Spain – Near the park – Mimohe (Shutterstock)

Photo 5: Malaga, Spain – Connected – No-Mad (Shutterstock)

Photo 6: Valencia, Spain – Walking down the street – Mimohe (Shutterstock)

Photo 7: La Orotava, Spain – On the day of Corpus Christi – GranTotufo

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.

Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.

Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.

Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.

Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.

Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.

Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018

Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.

Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.

Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.

Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018

Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.

Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.

Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.

Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.

Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.

Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.

Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.

Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.

Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.

Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.

Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.

Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018

Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.

Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.

Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.

Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.

Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.

Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.

Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.

Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.

Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.

Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.

Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.

Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.

Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.

Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.

The Anthology of Global Instability

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

Forthcoming

CW 2 – Brazil – Joana Alencar
CW 3 – Venezuela – Veronica Cordido
CW 4 – South America – Alejandra Baccion
CW 5 – Germany and Romania – Andreea Sepi
CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed