Transposing emblem by Kenn Mwangi

Since the majority of the Kenyan population identifies as Christian, Sundays hold a special place in their lives. Every Sunday without fail, millions of Christians from all walks of life throng to their favorite places of worship. We come together eager for a chance to commune with the man in the cloud. Each worshipper is driven by personal reasons often revolving around five main categories – expressing gratitude, asking for forgiveness, seeking blessings, reinforcing their faith, and reserving a place in the afterlife.

As is the norm with religious upbringing, most people were indoctrinated into Christianity as children to revere God and all that he stands for. We have been taught that God is kind and loving to all those who believe and venerate him. He is bountiful with his blessings for those who follow his teachings unquestioningly and those who love him unreservedly.

It is with this understanding that we sing our little hearts out during the moving praise and worship sessions and sit stiffly in the hard pews during lengthy sermons. It is the reason we’re generous with our money. We give unreservedly during the offering, tithe faithfully with each paycheck and any other time we’re called upon to fund God’s work.

Nairobi, Kenya – On the street – Authentic Travel

Blessed is the hand that giveth.

Preachers are quick to delve into the benefits of giving generously to the church. They will reinforce their messages with the appropriate bible quotes that all conclude with god loving a cheerful giver. The congregation will hang on their every word and loosen their purses further when called upon. After all, these men of god understand and make it clear that the size of your offering is directly correlated with the amount of grace that will be bestowed on you in heaven. After all, who doesn’t need or love grace?

But what does grace really consist of?

Every believer making a beehive for the church could use a little more grace in their life. At best, grace is an amorphous term whose meaning varies from person to person, assuming any form of positive human experience. Thanks to Christian teachings, we’re are led to believe that God channels his grace to us through his servant – the clergy. As such, Christians swallow every word that comes from the servant’s mouth, believing it to be pure and divine. We are required to take the word of the clergy at face value and obey it unquestioningly.

Rusinga Island, Kenya – Hanging out – JL Warehouse

And that’s where the problem lies. The clergy has since risen to become a privileged bunch that is venerated to the point of being regarded as demi-gods. Realizing that they are above reproach, self-styled religious figures have seized the opportunity to abuse this privilege. Since the turn of the century, independent churches have sprung up all over the Kenyan landscape, with splinter groups emerging in just about every Christian denomination.

Money and power more than the need to spread the gospel is the primary driving force behind these developments. Churches and faith-based organizations are legally not required to pay taxes. Most religious figures have realized that churches are excellent money minting machines and have moved in for the kill.

Nairobi, Kenya – Downtown – Billy Miaron

A growing number of people hungry for grace makes the perfect target market for the prosperity gospel. Silk-tongued independent pastors have honed this message down to an art form. The sermons no longer dwell on eternal rewards in the afterlife. Instead, they now focus on reaping material rewards in this life – also referred to as the prosperity gospel.

The message revolves around having unshakable faith in God and giving generously to him in exchange for divine favors. These preachers are the perfect embodiment of this philosophy. They live in lavish houses that cost millions of dollars, drive a fleet of high-end cars, fly out for holidays and conferences, hobnobbing with the rich and powerful. They are living the kind of life that we can only dream of – further reinforcing the need to rekindle our faith in God.

Mombasa, Kenya – Trading shops – Fotogrin

However, if one was to dig deeper into the perfect life of these flamboyant men of God, huge cracks and inconsistencies begin to appear. You would realize their primary source of wealth is the offerings that are collected from their faithful. Their eloquent, well-crafted and moving sermons draw huge crowds each and every Sunday of the year. As the groups grow larger, church services are spread across the day – no one is turned away.

To shore up the offering collections during each service, preachers reinforce the need to match your offering with the amount of grace you’d like to receive in exchange. Systematic offering collection methods ensure that every member of the congregation makes a beehive for the collection plate. And so, the size of the Sunday collection soars.

Nairobi, Kenya – At the festival – Billy Miaron

So great is the generosity on Sunday that churches resort to hiring armed services to transport and guard the Sunday collections. Sunday services generate anything from hundreds of thousands to millions of shillings. Some churches announce the sums collected publicly while in some that’s a closely guarded secret. Either way, the congregation is happy to receive their weekly grace.

Meanwhile, the preachers are left with a jackpot that runs into the millions, and they put it to use. Most of them use it as seed money to create highly successful business empires as they use their position and influence to turn their congregations into paying customers. Since they have the necessary funds, these religious figures can afford to hire the best brains on the market to run their investment. For the mundane chores, they are quick to offer unpaid positions to a cross-section of the congregation who are only happy to be doing God’s work.

Machakos, Kenya – Rural farmers – James Karuga

And so, the cycle continues with rich and flamboyant preachers creating satellite branches to tend to a growing congregation eager to hear their message. As the number of branches swells, so does the amount of money they generate with each passing Sunday collection. We watch in awe as they create mindboggling business empires that cement their place among the rich, mighty, and powerful. All the while insisting that the key to leading a successful life hinges on having unshakable faith in the Lord and giving generously to the church to fund God’s work. Since we do not see as impressive results in our lives, we endeavor to increase our faith and donation to the church with each passing year.

Kenn Mwangi

Credits

Snapshot 1: Kadzhiado, Kenya – Headed off – Sergey Pesterev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Nairobi, Kenya – On the street – Authentic Travel (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Rusinga Island, Kenya – Hanging out – JL Warehouse (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Nairobi, Kenya – Downtown – Billy Miaron (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Mombasa, Kenya – Trading shops – Fotogrin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Nairobi, Kenya – At the festival – Billy Miaron (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Machakos, Kenya – Rural farmers – James Karuga (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Christian Escobar

In the life of every human being there are moments of rupture: situations where we experience such intense emotions that our world is turned upside down. A few months ago, I turned 31 and, during the several weeks after my birthday celebration, I wondered about a lot of things: Where will my work take me? Where am I going to live? Will my beloved ones stay by my side for a long time? But, among all those important questions, there was one that is still preoccupying my thoughts: Where can I find true love?

Bogota, Columbia – The street – Red Mauro Silva

When I was younger, love was one of the topics I was more concerned about because I fell for the idea of loving someone, of experiencing those wonderful feelings I read about in the work of poets I admired. I had never had a romantic relationship and I could not wait to have one. It was not until I was 21 that I had my first relationship, but when that moment finally arrived it was not everything I had been expecting: I ran into jealousy, arguments and anguish. After several years and relationships, I am still trying to answer that question because I really want to know if love is real.

Bogota, Columbia – La Candelaria – posztos

Our planet Earth is a vast place. It’s so full of different landscapes, languages, cultures, that I cannot understand why sometimes we tend to become attached to certain aspects of our own culture, as if we cannot see beyond the end of our own nose. And I say this because I have experienced it myself: For a long time, I never thought about finding love outside the borders of my own country. I know this is not bad at all because we all have different needs and, even if the possibilities are infinite, our personal fulfillment can reside in those simple little things easily found in our everyday life. So, a big part of my quest for love has taken place here in Colombia. Yes, by the way, I’m from Colombia, so let me tell you a little bit about my country’s cultural traits.

Monserrate, Columbia – Cityscape – Michael Lechner

Colombia is considered by many to be a magical land teeming with joyful and friendly people who are always willing to help you and share with you their passion for life. Some even say that Colombia is one of the happiest countries in the whole world. As I stated tacitly, most of my romantic partners have been Colombian women characterized by their warmth, expressiveness and great emotional intensity. But, despite living in what some people consider a wonderful place, I have always felt like a stranger in my own culture.

Bogota, Columbia – Business and art – Watch The World

There are some common aspects of Colombian behavior that I have never liked and the funny thing is that I started noticing them more intensely (even in my own behavior) when I began to interact more with people from other countries (especially from Europe). For example, sometimes we can be quite relaxed about specific situations in which a different attitude would be more appropriate, and that sometimes leads us to be irresponsible. Moreover, a lot of Colombian people avoid being straightforward in order to not hurt other people’s feelings, which can be very annoying if you just want a quick and honest answer. Now I try to avoid doing these things as much as I can.

Bogota, Columbia – Pigeon-holed – Angello Lopez

When it comes to romantic relationships, you can experience a wide range of behavior. On the one hand, Colombian women can be extremely amorous and caring, letting you know how much they love you and think about you in many different ways. My first girlfriend (the one I loved the most) used to take every chance to tell me how much she cared about me and that made me feel important and loved – it was really beautiful. I experienced this several times with different Colombian women, even if it wasn’t with the same intensity. On the other hand, they can become very possessive and sometimes may create very intense dramas out of nothing. For example, at one time my first girlfriend broke up with me because she heard a random girl talking about how handsome I was. A bit extreme, right? Well, although it sounds incredible, I had other experiences similar to this one, like that day when a girl I was dating got very angry at me because I told her I couldn’t talk to her on the phone while I was having lunch.

Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun

I think all these behaviors can be explained by a concept I call “the soap opera culture”: We tend to greatly amplify every emotion, both the good and the bad ones, as if we were living in a soap opera. So, it is possible that if a Colombian woman loves you a lot, she will give you some strong emotions that maybe you don’t want, which can become a problem if you are as calm as me. And this is why I have always felt like I am wandering between two extremes when I dated Colombian women: some days I touched the sky and some others I hit the ground. I know that this way of understanding and experiencing emotions is not a bad thing, it’s just another way of feeling, living. As I stated earlier, everything depends on what we are looking for. I have some foreign friends who are married to Colombian women and they seem very happy, and I’m glad to know that they have found what I am still looking for.

Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun

Have you ever experienced something similar within your own culture? If the answer is yes, maybe what we wish for can only be found somewhere else, and sailing across this whole wide world could throw some light on it. At the end of the day, any decision leading us to happiness is a perfect one. We just need to make it.

Christian Escobar

Credits

Snapshot 1: Cartagena, Columbia – In the tunnel – Luis Vidal (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Bogota, Columbia – Street art – Jorge Gardner (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Bogota, Columbia – La Candelaria – posztos (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Monserrate, Columbia – Cityscape – Michael Lechner (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Bogota, Columbia – Business and art – Watch The World (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Bogota, Columbia – Pigeon-holed – Angello Lopez (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Bogota, Columbia – On the street – Mikadun (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Bogota, Columbia – Meeting at the town square – Nowaczyk (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Lee G.

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Nikolina Pavicevic

On the Adriatic coastline lies a small country with a beautiful seaside and northern region. The country is called Montenegro, and the legend that we are taught in schools says that the name Montenegro was coined by two Italian salesmen. Montenegro is the home of tall people who persevered through chaotic historical events but succeeded in keeping their hearts warm and their heads up.

Sometimes patriarchal structures and a strong wish to preserve traditions seem to prevail over this area. However, there is another, less known side of Montenegro. I was born and live here, and I can, without a doubt, say that gender inequality is one of the biggest problems our society faces.

Gender inequality isn’t discussed, mentioned or even acknowledged by the majority in Montenegro. And a woman’s fight starts even before she is born.

Montenegro – Today – Andreja Mihailovic

Along with Albania, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, Montenegro is ranked at the top of the list of countries with the greatest imbalance between male and female children.1 The Institute for Statistics in Montenegro reported that in 2009 alone, 113 boys were born for every 100 girls. The natural ratio is usually 102 or 103 boys per 100 girls.

These facts may sound confusing or surprising, but it is an open secret that our women don’t resist social pressure to give birth to a son and abort a girl.

Ostrog Monastery, Montenegro – Morning – Ollirg

Montenegrin lawmakers have tried to control and suppress the problem by law. But there are no reported cases. The law of silence is stronger than written legislation. Abortions are done in private clinics so the public isn’t informed about them, and families are “happy” when their women abort girls.

If a conceived girl is allowed to be born, she often faces additional problems and challenges later in life: Every fifth woman in Montenegro faces some form of economic violence. This is poorly recognized and rarely reported.2 It is an open secret that many women are economically dependent on their partners. We meet these women on the street, we chit chat with them or go out for a coffee, they can be our neighbors, our former classmates, our friends or our relatives. Women often try to conceal the real truth, hiding behind lies for years and years, even decades.

Kotor, Montenegro – On the weekend – Igor Lushchay

It is a well-known fact that economic violence is also associated with other forms of violence, such as psychological violence. A partner usually controls and manipulates a woman, not letting her make independent decisions about her income. She then tries to fool herself into thinking that this is for the better and that she will avoid any possible conflicts and/or physical violence. Sometimes a partner convinces his girlfriend or wife to leave her job, saying that she should stay at home and take care of the household and kids.

Luckily, some people have become aware of the problem and are trying to solve it. For example, in 2017 Mccan Podgorica and Mccan Belgrade, along with the help of the Women’s Right Centre, organized the campaign #Neželjena (#Unwanted) which affected not only Montenegrin people but the whole region. The goal of the campaign was to prevent sex-selective abortions. This campaign quickly received media attention, people on social media debated and discussed this issue and it seemed that the Montenegrin public became more conscious of the problem.

Virpazar, Montenegro – At the wine and fish festival – Natalya Volchenkova

Of course, the campaign is just the beginning. It is great that it drew public attention, but that is just one step in solving this issue and making our country a safe place for everyone.

Another step was the regional 3-year program “Implementing norms, changing minds,” funded by the EU and conducted in 2017 with the goal of ending gender-based discrimination and violence against women in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia) and Turkey.3 This program has solutions that they are actively trying to achieve. They think that a difference should be made step-by-step, and some of their ideas are to influence the laws and policies through work with governments, enhancing a woman’s position as leader, etc.

Montenegro – Elsewhere on May 2nd – DeStefano

It is important that we help young girls develop healthy self-esteem from a young age and also offer them emotional support. Afterwards, it is important that we teach children and teenagers about gender inequality and the related issues. That way, if something similar happens to them in the future, they will recognize the problem and seek help.

At first glance, Montenegrin society may look hostile to these changes, but the campaign and program, as well as many more initiatives to come, suggest that we are ready for change. All these attempts to make an improvement are a great way to influence our society.

Kotor, Montenegro – Afternoon walk – Dizfoto

We should realize that every human has equal rights. Although, this sounds trivial, like a cliché, sometimes we forget the true meaning and importance of it. Our society may not have been conscious of this in the past, but now we are aware that inequality is a problem. Sometimes we may make it harder for women to succeed in their goals, when we should encourage everyone to achieve them and be happy, no matter what their gender, race, ethnicity, etc.

It seems like we break every law, except the law of silence. We should not keep quiet about gender inequality, or inequality of any kind. On the contrary, we should discuss the problem, encourage women to share their experiences and make our society a safe and warm environment for everyone.

Nikolina Pavicevic

References

1.United Nations Population Fund (2012). Gender-biased sex selection.

2.Vucinic, Z. (2017). Novinarsko pero o rodnoj ravnopravnosti (Gender Equality Journal). Podgorica.

3. Woman UN (2017). Implementing Norms,Changing Minds. Retrieved from UNDP Montenegro : http://www2.unwomen.org/-/media/field%20office%20eca/attachments/publications/2017/un%20women%20regional_evaw_2-pager_final.pdf?la=en&vs=1703

Credits

Snapshot 1: Montenegro – Rimmed – Lazar Todorovic (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Montenegro – Today – Andreja Mihailovic (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Ostrog Monastery, Montenegro – Morning – Ollirg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Kotor, Montenegro – On the weekend – Igor Lushchay (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Virpazar, Montenegro – At the wine and fish festival – Natalya Volchenkova (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Montenegro – Elsewhere on May 2nd – DeStefano (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Kotor, Montenegro – Afternoon walk – Dizfoto (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Sara Deiana
Cagliari, Italy – Me above – Roman Kraft

It is a major problem. Sadly, one spread across our whole planet. The victims are all different: they may be black, white, atheist, religious, well-educated, monogamous, sterile, libertine, married; and yet they all share the same fate – they were born a woman.

The statistics on violence committed against women in any given part of the world are simply shocking, disgusting, not acceptable nor tolerable and, despite that, in my opinion, not given enough consideration.

I will talk about the country I grew up in, whose people’s mentality is the one I believe I know the best: L‘ ITALIA.

Florence, Italy – Only me – Tolga Kilinc

I will try to explain what I mean when saying that I am talking about a huge problem that is not given enough consideration. There are many distinct forms of violence and abuse; unfortunately, in Italy, a woman is killed every two days, and last year statistical data showed that on average eleven women were raped daily. But we don’t hear much about it because everyone is so busy fighting over other major issues like immigration, religion, politics – essentially just fighting against each other. In fact, we only make a fuss about it if the culprit is an immigrant and the victims are Italians, but that’s another matter that we have to leave aside for now.

Siena, Italy – Myself – Megan Murray

We are faced with a problem that is deeply rooted in today’s society and sadly inextricably entwined with our glorious culture and history. Yes, our country suffers from a well-known disease called machismo or maschilismo. The disease is alive and can be found in many families, work environments and relationships of every kind. Il maschilismo is not limited to discrimination – it actually kills. It is not a mere exaggeration, but a certainty that has been more than proven by now. It is the culture that preaches and promotes the superiority of the male, his right to own everything he wants, including women. And it is an issue that should be treated with the seriousness and relevance it deserves. Because in a more or less accentuated way, with more or less serious consequences (certainly lethal once every two days), its effects impact half of the Italian population. It is a problem that must be tackled by society as a whole, in a compact way: institutions, press, television, school, men and women, girls and boys.

Venice, Italy – Me by myself – Maradon

And here comes the concept of polarizzazione – what really strikes me and leaves me speechless, thinking to myself “how” and “why.” Polarization happens when people become divided into contrasting groups. Someone has to explain to me how a human being can find any convincing thought, how anybody has the courage to even think, let alone utter words which will defend and justify the MOSTRO, which will be on the side of the attacker.

Venice, Italy – Me phone – Oleg

If any of you are brave enough – and if you can keep your sanity – to scroll and read through the opinion of our fellow humans in online newspapers, blogs etc., you will notice that what prevails when the subject is rape are mean words like: “she had it coming,” “she was looking for it,” “she was not dressed in an appropriate way,” “she drank too much,” “she was alone,” “she shoudn’t have been there,” “she tempted him.” And, when we read some comments about a woman being killed by her partner or husband, we have the privilege of reading some fine thinker saying “he was too jealous,” “…but he loved her,” “he was a good man,” “he probably didn’t mean to.” We might think that it is still alright – although it is NOT, still within the limits of the standard macho minds, because after all, they are just some idiotic comments by random people. If such opinions are sometimes reported by the major newspapers of the country, you realize that we have a problem, a big problem. In fact, when a newspaper reports about one of the many feminicides happening throughout the country they often refer to it as a “crime of passion.” What passion are we talking about? Again, between the lines, some part of the population, an important one in this case – the newspapers, radio or television broadcasting news – are trying to convince us that the man did it in the name of love!

Verona, Italy – Us – Max Böhme

So, in Italy, and I am afraid not just in Italy, we live in a society that tends to be maschilista, so rape becomes, rather than an act that is always and in any case to be condemned, the subject of debate, depending on the case. This debate can have many different points of view and often the victim will be accused of something. It is as if we have gone back to the 16th or 17th century when women were accused of witchcraft.

Rome, Italy – With you – Goran Bogicevic

This is the society we have to live in, which in some ways, seems to be going backwards, a society in which the victims will feel culpable, because they were wearing the wrong clothes that night, because they shouldn’t have had that one more drink. But also because we don’t always have the courage or the strength to denounce the violence, and hearing words that make us the object being blamed doesn’t help the healing.

Rome, Italy – Us above – Veroniki Thetis Chelioti

The saddest thing is to see women also behave in this way and taking the side of the rapist along the lines of the common refrain: “She asked for it,” “yes, but being alone at night!,” “I wonder how she was dressed.” Changing this way of thinking as a woman is very important, it can be the first step toward fighting this violence, becoming a society that has respect for all women and that detaches itself from this “male” dominant way of thinking.

Sara Deiana

Credits

Snapshot 1: Cagliari, Italy – Me above – Roman Kraft (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Florence, Italy – Only me – Tolga Kilinc (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Siena, Italy – Myself – Megan Murray (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Venice, Italy – Me by myself – Maradon (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Venice, Italy – Me phone – Oleg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Verona, Italy – Us – Max Böhme (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Rome, Italy – With you – Goran Bogicevic (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Rome, Italy – Us above – Veroniki Thetis Chelioti (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Caterina Piagentini

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh Voiceover by Caterina Piagentini
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Hayk Antonyan

The habit of aligning polarization and the discourse of extremes has come a long way. We have inherited the tradition of equating polarities and extremes. We consider it to be a given and do not challenge it; we do not engage in deep reflection on the subject. It has played a bad game with us: we have been deceived by the commensurability of polarity and extreme, wrongly thinking that it entails or implies equivalence, comparability or correspondence.

Yerevan, Armenia – The rearview mirror – Serkant Hekimci

Now comes irony. It breaks the code and transgresses the borders of convention – those conventions that were arbitrary or symbolic only, without featuring any motivation and allegory (emblem). It makes us de-polarize the extreme. It makes us consider extremes as the new normal. We invert the content and boundaries: Now boundaries are the mainstream, and yesterday’s content is at the outskirts, having to wade through the waves of mess in the absence of goodwill. It turns out that the normal failed to generate and impart goodwill. It turns out that the extremes pack a lot of excess, hyperbolicity, and that they also cannot make use of all that surplus that they now have to share with other extremes as well as yesterday’s mainstream.

Yerevan, Armenia – On ice – Artem Avetisyan

Irony heals. It becomes clear that already the work for the de-polarization of extremes and de-extremization of poles invigorates, enlivens and regenerates. It becomes clear that the profane dilemma of power versus choice produces extremes in a specific mode – one which polarizes the extremes. Extremes do not arise as polarities per se, inherently. They are qualified as polarities post hoc. No one is seeking extremity proper; we all seek the expression of our free will; extremity is what often results from that natural urge of ours, by way of our own effort, to contain and disenfranchise it. Polarization is performative in the nexus of discourse-practice, whereas “extreme-seeking” (so to say) is at the heart of our ontic being (incl. emancipation) – any motion, dynamics, peripatetics is associated with extremization – see the principle of least action in physics and the calculus of variance in mathematics.

Yerevan, Armenia – Underground – Eran Yardeni

This still sounds weird, doesn’t it? Let’s now turn to irony’s twin brother, allegory, whose vehicle is the emblem (in simplified terms of course). How do we handle the foregoing inversion? How do we handle, in particular, the stress and frustration of the mainstream when it faces things turned upside down. It neither has the skills for nor an understanding of what is new. It lacks the right vantage point. The frames and assumptions have changed. Problematizations that used to be there for decades and even centuries no longer exist and are being replaced by problematizations of their “negative spaces,” i.e. of what used to be considered under the spotlight, but was eventually found to be a complete white space – space that was completely overlooked.

Yerevan, Armenia – In a helmet – Anton Watman

And that space is the space of allegory. But allegory consumerized, brought to masses if you like. Tribalized allegory no longer works on the global scale (if it ever worked). How allegory materializes is itself ironic! Allegory materializes from those same extremes! It results from the emergence of too many extremes, and we cannot keep up with the pace polarizing them as they are born at a too high rate. Rates of processes govern the processes, as non-equilibrium thermodynamics (synergetics) teach us. In other words, our capacity to polarize extremes is limited in terms of our throughput. Fortunately for us.

Yerevan, Armenia – The laughing man – Anton Watman

The extremes gather into (hyper)molar ensembles that over time tend to self-organization. Fragments organize by transposition into emblems (following Walter Benjamin). Finally, how do they do it? When initially polarized extremes are thrown into an abyss, into no hope, into being left with/in their melancholy. Allegory arises exactly from the melancholic disposition (following Walter Benjamin). Allegory marries nature and history, allegory induces natural history. Allegory gathers (from) the polydisperse multiplicity of extremes that peripatetically wander and self-organize into bodies of consciousness.

Echmiadzin, Armenia – Kachkars – Sophie Mahdavi

Now, one feature or ingredient of that process is left. That is modulation. Extremes interact with each other, they connect to each other easily because at that stage they do not have cores, only peripheries or long-tails, and those peripheries of theirs being fugacious (peripatetic) connect to each other readily. One-to-many connectivity for each converts/translates to modulation for it: a web of diagrammaticity forms that helps by acting as chora (khora) for them each to modulate itself and form selves and identities (modulation and diagrammaticity are intimately interconnected). The formation of cores or kernels of identities follow from it by way of condensation and the like. So extremes or peripatetics are the epitomic social actants. They take life from each other, virtually, by (their) virtues.

Kapan, Armenia – Soviet apartment building – Marketa

In such settings there is no outer or detached body of appraisal or qualification that can polarize the extremes. Now all are extremes, and it never enters anybody’s mind to alienatingly label themselves or their peer polar(ity). The agonizing beautified game of cross-alienation is over now. The misadventure of alienation is succeeded by fraternity with diversity, each element of which is an extreme. All are extremes that face each other in a concave, caring and embracing space that all thus make up. Geometrically, such concave or compressive space of exact extremes makes up the ideal topology for the expression of free and good will. It is the receptacle or chora space voiced by Ancient Greeks; it receives everything, cares for everyone, erases and produces anew, yet by preserving the traces. The memory pool it maintains is accessible and shared by all, all extremes or “extremes” now.

Hayk Antonyan

Credits

Snapshot 1: Lori, Armenia – Smart Center – nerses Khachatryan (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Yerevan, Armenia – The rearview mirror – Serkant Hekimci (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Yerevan, Armenia – On ice – Artem Avetisyan (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Yerevan, Armenia – Underground – Eran Yardeni (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Yerevan, Armenia – In a helmet – Anton Watman (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Yerevan, Armenia – The laughing man – Anton Watman (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Echmiadzin, Armenia – Kachkars – Sophie Mahdavi (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Kapan, Armenia – Soviet apartment building – Marketa (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Eric MacFadden

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Peren Çakir

When we were living in Buenos Aires with my spouse, we asked one of our close friends to cat sit for our two pets while we were on vacation. During our two-week absence, our landlady was handling the repair of our broken WiFi and would be contacting our friend to sort out the details. One day, the landowner called her to ask for the WiFi password. When our friend replied “evaperon123,” our landlady screamed: “How can this be? I am sure the former tenant set up this password. I would never set such a password.” Realizing how she may have overreacted, she continued: “I don’t know what you think of Eva Peron and I do not want to start an argument about this.” To which our friend replied: “No problem.”

Monte Vera, Argentina – Mirrored – Diego Müller

As a Turkish couple that had escaped severe political polarization in Turkey, we were surprised to find out that even a simple password could lead to a political argument. Eva Peron was the wife of Juan Peron, founder of Peronism and the leader of the Argentine working class during the 1950s. She became a phenomenon for her activities regarding economically disadvantaged people, especially for women and children. Millions of people cried during her funeral, while a considerable number of others were glad to see her gone. Those were the ones who believed that Peronism was just another name for a type of populism, which they blamed for everything that was wrong with Argentina.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Osvaldo Pugliese Monument – NRuArg

Peronism gained a foothold in the war against communism, but was interrupted by several military coups. The latest coup was directed against Isabel Peron, the wife of Juan Peron on March 24, 1976. Isabel Peron had to deal with her decreasing popularity, financial instability, inflation, international isolation and violence, which led to the 1976 coup. During the so called “Dirty War” between 1976 and 1983, it is estimated that 30,000 people disappeared. Many of them were intellectuals, students and labor union staff. In 1983, the path to democracy was restored. March 24 was declared the Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice in 2006, and, since then, thousands of citizens commemorate the victims of the military dictatorship.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Libertador Avenue – Buteo

Mauricio Macri was elected as the president of Argentina in 2015 by gaining 51.4% of the vote. This marked the end of a 12-year Kirchnerist period, which based its policies on supporting low-income classes and creating a national and independent economy after the big economic crisis in 2001. Macri promoted himself as the harbinger of change, promising to cut ties with the Peronist history that had entangled Argentina for the last 70 years.

Many of Macri’s supporters, who belong to the middle and upper-middle classes, perceive Peronism to be one of the historical problems for Argentina, as it promoted a populist culture and prevented the revival of Argentina. They severely criticized the economic aid given to low-income classes as well as other countries in Latin America, while they saw Macri as a crucial actor for profound cultural change and a more prosperous economy.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – In the rain – Patricio-Murphy

However, according to Peronists and leftists, Macri was aligned with the global ruling class, who trusted that he would implement their economic policies. This caused a 1000% increase in public tariffs, decreased retirement pensions, a 100% devaluation in 3 years, and 60% interest rates without any decrease in the 40% inflation rate, and ultimately stagflation. Moreover, the reluctance of the middle class to provide free healthcare and education services to foreigners in Argentina is worrisome, as it would taint Argentina’s image as a country welcoming immigrants.

Deteriorating economic indicators, several mass demonstrations and rumors about a possible return of Peronism in the 2019 elections have ignited deep debates at Argentinian asado (grilled meat) gatherings, as social anxiety increases due to a lack of alternative paths in the short run.

Ankara, Turkey – Protests – Cagkan Sayin

This level of polarization is not limited to Argentina. Turkey’s Gezi protests in 2013 were widely supported by the middle class in order to raise a voice against Erdogan’s increased authority. Meanwhile, most of the business world supported him, as well as a majority of the working class, who believe that Erdogan represents their conservative identity. The coup attempt in 2016 and the Constitutional Referendum in 2017, where Erdogan claimed victory by receiving 51.36% of the vote, hastened the deepening of polarization. The economic crisis in 2018 dramatically decreased any hope of re-organizing a stable and harmonious society in the short term.

Istanbul, Turkey – Clashes – Alexandros Michailidis

Yet polarization can also be found in the Western world. The UK decided to leave the EU in the Brexit Referendum, and Donald Trump defeated Hillary Clinton in the United States. Those results are enough to demonstrate the lack of consensus in societies, with many people starting to question whether gaining 50% of the votes is enough to create a new establishment, without disregarding the concerns of the others.

One of the side effects of polarization is alienation. While those who hold on to power feel like champions in a football game, the other party loses its sense of belonging. Communication problems, lack of trust, the inability to use empathy, prejudices and shaming cause the polarization to deepen while blocking a truly pluralist approach.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – In traffic – Nora Claudia Mazzini

Polarized societies spend too much energy on a zero-sum game where both parties are negatively affected by the consequences. People, countries, and nature lose precious time for the establishment of a sustainable living environment in such a context. We need to become aware of our limited time and resources and start to appreciate a collaborative mindset. This applies to not just Argentina, but also Turkey, the UK, the US and the rest of the world.

Peren Çakir

Credits

Snapshot 1: Santa Cruz, Argentina – Cave of hands – Adwo (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Monte Vera, Argentina – Mirrored – Diego Müller (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Osvaldo Pugliese Monument – NRuArg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Libertador Avenue – Buteo (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Buenos Aires, Argentina – In the rain – Patricio-Murphy (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Ankara, Turkey – Protests – Cagkan Sayin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Istanbul, Turkey – Clashes – Alexandros Michailidis (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Buenos Aires, Argentina – In traffic – Nora Claudia Mazzini (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Kimberly Camacho

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Virginia Sanmartín López

Maybe it is due to my profession that I search, study, observe and think about the use and meaning of words before adopting an attitude, coming to a conclusion or sharing my opinion. So let’s start here by looking at some definitions of extreme.

Going beyond the ordinary or average. Hey, great! Go beyond the average, leave the ordinary behind, go further… That means “more,” even “better.” We can feel extreme happiness! But be careful, because extreme poverty exists and we can also feel extreme pain.

Farthest from the center or middle. Too many people over there! We can finally move away from the crowd. But isn’t the “farthest” a too distant point? We could need something important from that center or middle.

Going to great or exaggerated lengths; radical. But not radical as “basic” or “fundamental.” Obviously, it is nice having our own ideas and defending them. But is it also nice being “categorical’ or “inflexible”? Remember that rigid material breaks easily.

Last; final. Phew! We have finally reached the finish line. But… Is it the end? That’s all? What a pity!

Barcelona, Spain – Somewhere – David Werbrouck

These definitions show us two possibilities, two extremes, two poles of each case. We need to feel and know pain in order to feel and know joy (and vice versa). Have you ever been surrounded by the most peaceful and comfortable environment and wished with all your might that you were in some crowded pedestrian street on a sales day? Who has not started a strict diet based on proteins and has found themselves (suddenly) ingesting “strictly” sugar and fat? We can do our best to maintain an idea, stay in a place or follow certain rules, but a human being lives in a continuous intermediate point.

Cordoba, Spain – Check – Eliot Van Buggenhout

A geographical example: North Pole and South Pole. They are two too extreme extremes. It is cacophonous but true. Are we living in them? No, we do not live IN them; we live BETWEEN them.

An anatomic example: head, heart and feet. In my country, when we face a problem or a difficult decision, we say that we can think with our head, with our feet or with our heart. If we use our head (the “north pole”), it is assumed that we choose the rational, intelligent and most accepted option, so we are supposed to make the right decision. If we use our feet (the “south pole”), it is almost sure the result will be terrible. However, if we think about what we are going to do regarding that problem or decision with our heart (which is naturally BETWEEN our head and feet), the general consensus is that we will be on the right path; we will succeed; at least, we will be happy with our choice.

Madrid, Spain – Gran Via – Jorge Ramirez

An artistic example: colors. Black or white? How many colors exist BETWEEN them? What do we see in a white canvas? Nothing. What do we see in a black canvas? Nothing. What do we see when white light blinds us? Nothing. What do we see when a room is dark? Nothing. However, what can we see in a rainbow? Many colors, the Leprechaun’s pot of gold, unicorns…

A creationist example: the closeness of extremes creates life. Batteries have two poles (positive and negative) and both of them are absolutely necessary to create the electric flow. We get gray mixing black and white. A circle is formed when we join both extremes of a line. Fire near ice: liquid!

A sexual example: just masculine or feminine? Seriously? Nowadays? Just feel like a person who does not belong to either of these categories and adopt what you think fits you better and makes you feel complete.

Valencia, Spain – Artesanal – Juan Gomez

Far from opting just for “betweens” (which would be a kind of polarization), I will say that extremes can be a good option and perfectly accepted too. There is no doubt that smoking is bad for our health or murder is a crime (all cases). A coin has only two sides and tossing it up means that there are only two options. Basketball, football, handball or tennis are “polarized” sports: just two baskets, two goals, two half tennis courts, two teams or two tennis players to cheer on. Moreover, extreme sports are increasingly popular.

Bilbao, Spain – Shadowed – Pavel Kosov

But I do not want to resign myself to being in the entrance or the exit; I do not want to miss the path; I want to experience it all. I do not want limits. I do not want to be on the right side or on the left side. I do not want to be right-handed or left-handed. I want to be ambidextrous. Just like life. Obviously, we are all born, so we all have a defined beginning. But what about the end? Yes, we all die. Do we all have a defined end? Have we? Life is more than birth and death. Life is a series of events between both events. There is a universe between the beginning and the end. And the universe is infinite, isn’t it? It has no extremes, poles or limits. It has neither a beginning nor an end.

If we want justice, we must retain its emblem: balance. Try not to live on the edge. “Mind the gap.” After all, we can fall down…

Virginia Sanmartín López

Credits

Snapshot 1: Barcelona, Spain – Plaça de Sant Miquel – Jessie Brown (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Barcelona, Spain – Somewhere – David Werbrouck (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Cordoba, Spain – Check – Eliot Van Buggenhout (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Madrid, Spain – Gran Via – Jorge Ramirez (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Valencia, Spain – Artesanal – Juan Gomez (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Bilbao, Spain – Shadowed – Pavel Kosov (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Lucia Sepulveda

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Maha Husseini

We are witnessing increased and intensified polarization all over the world. History is full of examples of divided societies and political disparity, which contributed to shaping policies and influenced the course of peace and war. Disparity, exclusion, diversity and cultural differences may give rise to extreme standpoints.

Elements such as nationalism, identity, distribution of wealth and language are generally used for political purposes. Unfortunately, these elements create discord and division and are responsible for divergence. Society is then pulled apart and driven to conflicting extremes.

Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – Richard Cavalleri

Politics in Montreal is of a linguistic nature. As a newcomer I was always fascinated by the ability of Montrealers to switch between languages with an astonishing degree of fluidity. Montreal is a bilingual city par excellence. A city that embraces cultures and creates a blend that thrills and bewilders. However, the magic vanishes when one digs deeper and goes beyond the appearances. Montreal has its differences and internal controversies. It is a city with polarized opinions.

Advocating the French language casts its shadow on the world of politics, as well as day-to-day life in Montreal. Demographically, the city is divided into two parts, English and French. The western part of the island is anglophone and the eastern part is francophone. The language can be a mélange, French words can be used extensively when speaking English and vice versa. However, language on the island of Montreal might pose a challenge. Bilingual francophones sometimes hesitate to use English and may refuse to speak it, the same applies to French speaking anglophones.

Montreal, Canada – Sunday morning – Lucas Paita

Very proud of their heritage and cultural distinction, the French protect a language that distinguishes them. They defend and preserve a culture in the face of imminent risks and the threat of extinction. Without emphasizing the French aspect, manifested primarily through the French language, there is a risk of its disappearance. The threat is especially serious since Quebec shares borders with America and the rest of Canada, which are predominantly English speaking.

The Anglophones in Quebec may feel disadvantaged, as the French language always comes first. Nonetheless, the French Quebecers defend the policies of promoting French values, the language and culture in the province, saying that no other minority has the privileges that the anglophones in Quebec have. After all, the anglophones can send their kids to English speaking schools, colleges and universities. They also can have “Stop” signs instead of “Arret” in their streets and neighborhoods!

Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – meunierd

Some believe that the predominance of French and the ardent belief in protecting it as the Province’s official language have caused the divide between the two communities. The French, however, see this differently. Historically, after the French lost the war against the British, they felt that they were colonized and treated unjustly by the British. Many French people became poor and lacked education due to the British policies. Furthermore, some English politicians wished to assimilate the French speaking Canadians into English culture. English officials for the most part did not speak French at that time and they forced the French population to speak English. For the Quebecers, this is particularly offensive as Quebec is a French territory and its people have the right to speak their own language. The more the British tried to assimilate the French, the more the French resisted.

Thanks to French culture, Quebecers have a welfare system that is the most generous in Canada but with the highest taxes. Without the French influence, the welfare system would not exist in its current form. Many are proud of paying their taxes, which can reach up to half of their income, because they feel that the system pays off. Yes, they pay a substantial amount in taxes, more than any other Canadian in other provinces, but education is affordable and healthcare is free.

Montreal, Canada – Downtown – Sebastien Cordat

The French aspect in Quebec is especially interesting when examining the challenges of immigration. Quebec welcomes immigrants but it also stresses that immigrants should learn French as their first language. This would advance the survival of the language and culture. Beyond a shadow of doubt, Canada is a bilingual country with two official languages, but in Quebec French is the official language and it is more important. Therefore, immigrants don’t need to worry if they don’t speak the language, as the government of Quebec offers French immersion programs free of charge.

Montreal has its differences but it prides itself on being a home for everyone. The struggle for the French language as an official language has safeguarded it and served to create a bilingual society. By mastering English and French, Quebecers were able to develop a linguistic amalgam. French words such as dépanneur (convenience store), chalet (cottage), autoroute (highway) are used in English whereas semi-English phrases such as these are commonly used in French: j’ai uploadé le document (I uploaded the document), j’ai un hangover (I have a hangover).

Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – Bob Hilscher

It is true that polarization divides and can create disagreements and rivalries. However, language builds bridges, it connects people, it paves the way for unity and mutual benefits. Speaking the language of the other is understanding them and working with them towards a better future without discord or division. The coexistence of English and French or bilingualism in Montreal is a powerful tool to overcome differences. Montreal is home to the two societies and home is a place where the other has equal rights and can enjoy the same privileges. After all, both have more to unite them than to divide them.

Maha Husseini

Credits

Snapshot 1: Montreal, Canada – In the grass – Martin Reisch (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – Richard Cavalleri (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Montreal, Canada – Sunday morning – Lucas Paita (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – meunierd (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Montreal, Canada – Downtown – Sebastien Cordat (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Montreal, Canada – The Botanical Garden – Bob Hilscher (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana – Kwasi Amankwah Awuah
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Anastasiya Zakharova

Imagine a child shouting in their attempt to share their emotions, express their feelings, explain ideas, and share a vision of the world. The child wants to say something important to us, but the adults watch and laugh, saying, what a pretty child, how smart, but paying no attention to the words coming out of their mouth.

This is the situation of feminism in Russia. Progressive minds know that it is important to fight for their rights, but the majority of us stick to their view that there is nothing to talk about, that we have equal rights and that feminists are just crazy about following ghosts.

Vladivostok, Russia – Out the window – Lina Yatsen

If we take a step back for a moment, we can definitely see another situation. It is hard for modern people to imagine that we had so-called feminism in the Soviet period. Women had the same rights as men. I mean the same salary, the same right to a job – no gender indulgence. It is really hard to imagine that women in the past had more rights than today. At some point in history, women became more of a family person. Nowadays, there is a quite popular phrase to describe the situation: “Father works, mother is beautiful.” The most interesting thing is that lots of women accept this slogan without even noticing that they are in a trap. It means that men are allowed to evolve, explore the world outside, communicate with anyone they need to, but women should care for children, always be cute for her husband to stay with her. If the man does not have a job, it is also common for a woman to work just to help her husband and care for their home while the man is searching for what he wants to do, find himself, spending all the time he needs to figure out the business of his life. His wife takes care of the rest.

Moscow, Russia – Behind the scenes – Aurelien Romain

There is also a sharp difference in the attitude we have about buying a home. For women, it is considered important to find a man and start a family, but not to acquire property. It does not occur to us that a woman can buy an apartment or house. That is for a man. He should buy it, and you should stay there. Women face two polar opposite approaches to life – the first revolves around the man and family, while the second is to be independent and care for yourself and only then start a family if you find the right person for you.

Novosibirsk, Russia – In the student village – Alla Biriuchkova

The first group represents the vast majority of Russia. Mostly they live far from Moscow, St. Petersburg and other big cities. Starting a family at about 20 is the normal way of life for them. Feminism is more popular in large cities. It is really hard for feminist to live in a traditional family when everyone is only waiting for you to get married and have a child instead of pushing you to think of your dreams and wishes. For boys, of course, it is easier; they are told not to marry early and to enjoy the fruits of life.

Moscow, Russia – Entrance to Gorky bridge – Sasha Yudaev

So feminism is trying to explain to all women that a family, husband and children are not the only goal to achieve in life. Even the statistics say that for every two marriages there is one divorce. Feminists in Russia are treated very poorly, along the lines of “what do you want, you have everything.” Men think that the place of women is only with the family. According to the official paper “Men and Women of Russia” in 2016, women’s salaries are about 30% less than men’s.12

Moscow, Russia – After rain – Nikolay Vorobyev

There is also a high level of family harassment in Russia. Reports that a husband hurt his wife are common and at the same time terrible. There was a popular report about a man who drove his wife into the forest and broke her arms.3 And despite these stories, women are waiting for marriage because they think that this will not happen to them. But that is not true, the statistics say that every 40 minutes one woman dies from harassment.4 What can be more shocking than this figure?

Moscow, Russia – Underpass – Sergey Pesterev

Feminists are trying to make women, children and men aware of these numbers – to open everyone’s eyes. But they are still treated poorly. If you say you are a feminist, you will receive the “oh-my-god” reaction. People won’t ask questions, will not want to learn more. For them, it seems that feminists are people who don’t have any way to spend their time. And it is especially sad that women do not realize the current situation even after hearing the official figures.

The most important thing is for our government to inform people so they know the reality. Instead, unfortunately, they produce family propaganda, starting in school. And this only encourages girls to get married, without making boys less cruel.

Anastasiya Zakharova

Footnotes

1. “Women and Men in Russia.” Russian Federal Statistical Service. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

2. “Labor and Activity in Russia. 2017.” Russian Federal Statistical Service. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

3. Фомичева, Алина. “Вернусь и закончу.” a news. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

4. “Russian Federation: Nowhere to Run. Domestic Violence and Women.” Amnesty International. December 14, 2005. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

Credits

Snapshot 1: Moscow, Russia – Trams at night – Fedor Shlypnikov (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Vladivostok, Russia – Out the window – Lina Yatsen (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Moscow, Russia – Behind the scenes – Aurelien Romain (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Novosibirsk, Russia – In the student village – Alla Biriuchkova (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Moscow, Russia – Entrance to Gorky bridge – Sasha Yudaev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Moscow, Russia – After rain – Nikolay Vorobyev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Moscow, Russia – Underpass – Sergey Pesterev (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Marina Atanasova

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana/Nigeria – Ekua Ortsin
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – ???
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Sanjay Kumar Ray

Indian society was always divided by caste, religion, language and many other categories. However, the identity of a united nation is something we have been proud of since our childhood.

While growing up in a middle-class family, we did not feel the presence of tension, besides political tension, which was manifested mainly through the media and newspapers. All the political parties during the elections were eager to draft their manifesto with promises to eliminate poverty and offered sops for the people at the lowest rung of Indian society, also officially called the Scheduled Caste, comprising 16% of India’s population (200 million people).

Jaipur, India – Carrying water home – Ibrahim Rifath

Soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Scheduled Caste people to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability was abolished by the Constitution of India. In the quest to provide a better tomorrow to all its citizens, the state took many lofty steps, but their implementation lagged, creating tension among various ethnic groups. During the first three decades after independence, India had the “Hindu rate of growth,” a term referring to the low annual growth rate of the planned economy of India, which stagnated around 3.5%. Many economists pointed out that the “Hindu rate of growth” was a result of socialist policies implemented by governments.

The country wanted to improve the lives of millions of people who were deprived of education, health and basic amenities.

Kolkata, India – In the city of joy – Loren Joseph

The rich and middle class has a responsibility to these people. And the government tried to correct mistakes by creating reservations and taking other affirmative action. Some people were and are still apprehensive that these actions are creating divisions among people, but the fact that multiple governments of different political parties that ruled the country always tried to keep the reservation system in place, indicates that the job of moving millions of poor people into the mainstream had not yet been finished.

Independence has raised the aspirations of the oppressed people. But the more the oppressed people asserted themselves, the more resistance they faced from people in other higher classes.

Pune, India – At night – Atharva Tulsi

Then came the great Indian pro-market reforms in 1990. All of a sudden, talking about welfare took a back seat. The country opened up, bringing opportunities and risks, reducing the welfare provided by the government and becoming integrated into the global trade system. The net result is that there was a huge expansion of the economy, growth of the middle class and all-round progress. Did that progress reach the lowest rung of society? Has there been a reduction in the amount of division that kept poor people deprived of all the benefits? The question people asked is how inclusive this growth process has been.

The fall of the USSR discredited the very idea of centralized planning, with the state as the guarantor of equality and social welfare. The government started to reduce subsidies and benefits for the marginalized parts of society, citing competition in the laissez-faire economy. As the Indian economy opened up and became liberalized, global socialism turned into a bad word and capitalist jargon was heard much more frequently.

Kolkata, India – Lost on a train – Braden Barwich

Nonetheless, let us face the fact: Indian society today is polarized. This polarization is not simply bi- or tri-polar, with one or two or three groups or sections or communities or states. The country is polarized on various planes – religious, economic, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, caste, rural/urban and many others. Polarization creates an atmosphere of fear, anxiety and uncertainty. A polarized society is often prone to take extremist positions.

Polarization is closely connected with conflict. An unequal or polarized Indian society thus became a victim of that conflict. Splinter political groups leaned towards left extremism and joined armed struggles with the government, and over the years they expanded their base in various states of India. Various economic, linguistic, social, religious and ethnic groups started taking extreme positions on a number of issues.

Ahmedabad, India – In the window – Pop & Zebra

The multidimensional polarization was accentuated by many instances of division: caste, rural-urban, state, region, religion, etc. The emergence of computer technology added a digital dimension to these divisions, with its associated benefits and pitfalls. Electronic and print media is increasingly facilitating extreme positions in social and political debates. In the quest for higher ratings, media companies are leaving no stone unturned to attract attention in 24×7 broadcasting, even often at the cost of social harmony. Saner debates are becoming things of the past. Taking sides is the order of the day.

Social scientists have referred to this as identification alienation. Individuals belonging to one particular group identify with each other and are alienated from those belonging to another group. The advent of social media has enabled similar groups to connect and act on a real-time basis across various geographic locations. Various agitation programs pursued by diverse groups can easily bring thousands of people to the street at short notice thanks to Whatsapp, Facebook and other internet media. At the same time, pictures of social agitation, discontent and extremist actions are beamed through televisions into our homes as and when they happen. Individual anger is channeled into group agitation.

India – On the street – Elle

Polarization is a group phenomenon and will increase if there is stronger identification among people within a group or if alienation among groups becomes more intense. The latter applies to India’s socio-political climate today where groups are no longer tolerant of other ideas and paths.

My country is at the crossroads today.

Sanjay Kumar Ray

Snapshot 1: Idar, India – Over the golden water – Vivek Doshi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Jaipur, India – Carrying water home – Ibrahim Rifath (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Kolkata, India – In the city of joy – Loren Joseph (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Pune, India – At night – Atharva Tulsi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Kolkata, India – Lost on a train – Braden Barwich (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Ahmedabad, India – In the window – Pop & Zebra (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: India – On the street – Elle (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

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Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana/Nigeria – Ekua Ortsin
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – ???
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed