Transposing emblem by Anastasiya Zakharova

Imagine a child shouting in their attempt to share their emotions, express their feelings, explain ideas, and share a vision of the world. The child wants to say something important to us, but the adults watch and laugh, saying, what a pretty child, how smart, but paying no attention to the words coming out of their mouth.

This is the situation of feminism in Russia. Progressive minds know that it is important to fight for their rights, but the majority of us stick to their view that there is nothing to talk about, that we have equal rights and that feminists are just crazy about following ghosts.

Vladivostok, Russia – Out the window – Lina Yatsen

If we take a step back for a moment, we can definitely see another situation. It is hard for modern people to imagine that we had so-called feminism in the Soviet period. Women had the same rights as men. I mean the same salary, the same right to a job – no gender indulgence. It is really hard to imagine that women in the past had more rights than today. At some point in history, women became more of a family person. Nowadays, there is a quite popular phrase to describe the situation: “Father works, mother is beautiful.” The most interesting thing is that lots of women accept this slogan without even noticing that they are in a trap. It means that men are allowed to evolve, explore the world outside, communicate with anyone they need to, but women should care for children, always be cute for her husband to stay with her. If the man does not have a job, it is also common for a woman to work just to help her husband and care for their home while the man is searching for what he wants to do, find himself, spending all the time he needs to figure out the business of his life. His wife takes care of the rest.

Moscow, Russia – Behind the scenes – Aurelien Romain

There is also a sharp difference in the attitude we have about buying a home. For women, it is considered important to find a man and start a family, but not to acquire property. It does not occur to us that a woman can buy an apartment or house. That is for a man. He should buy it, and you should stay there. Women face two polar opposite approaches to life – the first revolves around the man and family, while the second is to be independent and care for yourself and only then start a family if you find the right person for you.

Novosibirsk, Russia – In the student village – Alla Biriuchkova

The first group represents the vast majority of Russia. Mostly they live far from Moscow, St. Petersburg and other big cities. Starting a family at about 20 is the normal way of life for them. Feminism is more popular in large cities. It is really hard for feminist to live in a traditional family when everyone is only waiting for you to get married and have a child instead of pushing you to think of your dreams and wishes. For boys, of course, it is easier; they are told not to marry early and to enjoy the fruits of life.

Moscow, Russia – Entrance to Gorky bridge – Sasha Yudaev

So feminism is trying to explain to all women that a family, husband and children are not the only goal to achieve in life. Even the statistics say that for every two marriages there is one divorce. Feminists in Russia are treated very poorly, along the lines of “what do you want, you have everything.” Men think that the place of women is only with the family. According to the official paper “Men and Women of Russia” in 2016, women’s salaries are about 30% less than men’s.12

Moscow, Russia – After rain – Nikolay Vorobyev

There is also a high level of family harassment in Russia. Reports that a husband hurt his wife are common and at the same time terrible. There was a popular report about a man who drove his wife into the forest and broke her arms.3 And despite these stories, women are waiting for marriage because they think that this will not happen to them. But that is not true, the statistics say that every 40 minutes one woman dies from harassment.4 What can be more shocking than this figure?

Moscow, Russia – Underpass – Sergey Pesterev

Feminists are trying to make women, children and men aware of these numbers – to open everyone’s eyes. But they are still treated poorly. If you say you are a feminist, you will receive the “oh-my-god” reaction. People won’t ask questions, will not want to learn more. For them, it seems that feminists are people who don’t have any way to spend their time. And it is especially sad that women do not realize the current situation even after hearing the official figures.

The most important thing is for our government to inform people so they know the reality. Instead, unfortunately, they produce family propaganda, starting in school. And this only encourages girls to get married, without making boys less cruel.

Anastasiya Zakharova

Footnotes

1. “Women and Men in Russia.” Russian Federal Statistical Service. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

2. “Labor and Activity in Russia. 2017.” Russian Federal Statistical Service. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

3. Фомичева, Алина. “Вернусь и закончу.” a news. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

4. “Russian Federation: Nowhere to Run. Domestic Violence and Women.” Amnesty International. December 14, 2005. Retrieved on August 15, 2019.

Credits

Snapshot 1: Moscow, Russia – Trams at night – Fedor Shlypnikov (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Vladivostok, Russia – Out the window – Lina Yatsen (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Moscow, Russia – Behind the scenes – Aurelien Romain (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Novosibirsk, Russia – In the student village – Alla Biriuchkova (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Moscow, Russia – Entrance to Gorky bridge – Sasha Yudaev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Moscow, Russia – After rain – Nikolay Vorobyev (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Moscow, Russia – Underpass – Sergey Pesterev (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Marina Atanasova

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana/Nigeria – Ekua Ortsin
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – ???
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Sanjay Kumar Ray

Indian society was always divided by caste, religion, language and many other categories. However, the identity of a united nation is something we have been proud of since our childhood.

While growing up in a middle-class family, we did not feel the presence of tension, besides political tension, which was manifested mainly through the media and newspapers. All the political parties during the elections were eager to draft their manifesto with promises to eliminate poverty and offered sops for the people at the lowest rung of Indian society, also officially called the Scheduled Caste, comprising 16% of India’s population (200 million people).

Jaipur, India – Carrying water home – Ibrahim Rifath

Soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Scheduled Caste people to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability was abolished by the Constitution of India. In the quest to provide a better tomorrow to all its citizens, the state took many lofty steps, but their implementation lagged, creating tension among various ethnic groups. During the first three decades after independence, India had the “Hindu rate of growth,” a term referring to the low annual growth rate of the planned economy of India, which stagnated around 3.5%. Many economists pointed out that the “Hindu rate of growth” was a result of socialist policies implemented by governments.

The country wanted to improve the lives of millions of people who were deprived of education, health and basic amenities.

Kolkata, India – In the city of joy – Loren Joseph

The rich and middle class has a responsibility to these people. And the government tried to correct mistakes by creating reservations and taking other affirmative action. Some people were and are still apprehensive that these actions are creating divisions among people, but the fact that multiple governments of different political parties that ruled the country always tried to keep the reservation system in place, indicates that the job of moving millions of poor people into the mainstream had not yet been finished.

Independence has raised the aspirations of the oppressed people. But the more the oppressed people asserted themselves, the more resistance they faced from people in other higher classes.

Pune, India – At night – Atharva Tulsi

Then came the great Indian pro-market reforms in 1990. All of a sudden, talking about welfare took a back seat. The country opened up, bringing opportunities and risks, reducing the welfare provided by the government and becoming integrated into the global trade system. The net result is that there was a huge expansion of the economy, growth of the middle class and all-round progress. Did that progress reach the lowest rung of society? Has there been a reduction in the amount of division that kept poor people deprived of all the benefits? The question people asked is how inclusive this growth process has been.

The fall of the USSR discredited the very idea of centralized planning, with the state as the guarantor of equality and social welfare. The government started to reduce subsidies and benefits for the marginalized parts of society, citing competition in the laissez-faire economy. As the Indian economy opened up and became liberalized, global socialism turned into a bad word and capitalist jargon was heard much more frequently.

Kolkata, India – Lost on a train – Braden Barwich

Nonetheless, let us face the fact: Indian society today is polarized. This polarization is not simply bi- or tri-polar, with one or two or three groups or sections or communities or states. The country is polarized on various planes – religious, economic, cultural, linguistic, ethnic, caste, rural/urban and many others. Polarization creates an atmosphere of fear, anxiety and uncertainty. A polarized society is often prone to take extremist positions.

Polarization is closely connected with conflict. An unequal or polarized Indian society thus became a victim of that conflict. Splinter political groups leaned towards left extremism and joined armed struggles with the government, and over the years they expanded their base in various states of India. Various economic, linguistic, social, religious and ethnic groups started taking extreme positions on a number of issues.

Ahmedabad, India – In the window – Pop & Zebra

The multidimensional polarization was accentuated by many instances of division: caste, rural-urban, state, region, religion, etc. The emergence of computer technology added a digital dimension to these divisions, with its associated benefits and pitfalls. Electronic and print media is increasingly facilitating extreme positions in social and political debates. In the quest for higher ratings, media companies are leaving no stone unturned to attract attention in 24×7 broadcasting, even often at the cost of social harmony. Saner debates are becoming things of the past. Taking sides is the order of the day.

Social scientists have referred to this as identification alienation. Individuals belonging to one particular group identify with each other and are alienated from those belonging to another group. The advent of social media has enabled similar groups to connect and act on a real-time basis across various geographic locations. Various agitation programs pursued by diverse groups can easily bring thousands of people to the street at short notice thanks to Whatsapp, Facebook and other internet media. At the same time, pictures of social agitation, discontent and extremist actions are beamed through televisions into our homes as and when they happen. Individual anger is channeled into group agitation.

India – On the street – Elle

Polarization is a group phenomenon and will increase if there is stronger identification among people within a group or if alienation among groups becomes more intense. The latter applies to India’s socio-political climate today where groups are no longer tolerant of other ideas and paths.

My country is at the crossroads today.

Sanjay Kumar Ray

Snapshot 1: Idar, India – Over the golden water – Vivek Doshi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Jaipur, India – Carrying water home – Ibrahim Rifath (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Kolkata, India – In the city of joy – Loren Joseph (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Pune, India – At night – Atharva Tulsi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Kolkata, India – Lost on a train – Braden Barwich (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Ahmedabad, India – In the window – Pop & Zebra (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: India – On the street – Elle (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana/Nigeria – Ekua Ortsin
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – ???
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by S.A. Dastan

I don’t know exactly when it started. Maybe it had been in us for decades and was waiting for the right time to be unveiled. Or, a new phenomenon just developed and burst out. What I do know is that things changed in the summer of 2016 – suddenly and irreversibly. It was like the instant rise of a flood that topples everything ahead of it or an avalanche that starts with a rolling snowball and then transforms each snowflake into a massively destructive whole.

I knew that there was some sort of strain among the people. But I didn’t know the strength and the intensity of it. One night, when I went to bed early, my wife woke me up with an anxious voice. “Honey, do you hear the noise coming from outside,” she said. I listened. It was like noise coming from a group of people. They were chatting with loud voices and I thought that there might be some argument. I peeked through the curtain to check it out. I saw a group of people at the crossroads about 50 meters away from our apartment. I calmed my wife, telling her that it might be a celebration. Although they did seem to be angry about something.

The following day was Sunday and we didn’t go outside. If we don’t have a plan to go outside, I spend Sundays fixing some house appliances, and I did so that day as well. My wife was busy cooking some special meal, the recipes for which she was learning via Instagram. As a family, we had little contact with social media. My wife was on Instagram, and nothing else. She did not watch TV, not even the quite popular Turkish soap operas. She was also completely unpolitical and didn’t really worry about what was happening in Turkey. I also didn’t have social media accounts and rarely watched TV. Indeed, I was once interested in Turkish politics but quit following it after seeing that it was merely “communication among the deaf”: Everybody was speaking but nobody was listening. I left my twitter account almost five years ago when it became a platform for bickering and also Facebook when grandmas started to join it. So, we spent entire days without knowing what was happening in Turkey. While I was waiting for dinner, I quickly zapped through the TV channels, not to watch but just to waste time. On every channel, I saw politicians and pundits speaking loudly, raging and humiliating other people, as if they were ready to punch them. I thought it was an ordinary day in Turkey.

Ankara, Turkey – Protests – Cagkan Sayin

The next day, when I went to my office – an animation studio in Karaköy, Istanbul – to work, I understood that things had greatly deteriorated and the hatred in society was now more visible. Posters were attached to walls, calling for “national unity against the enemies within us” and occasionally small groups of people with flags or some posters of the political parties. Life continued, but the polarization had now become a topic on the street. During the day, I checked the TV more than I usually did. I saw more news and more speeches from politicians. Both the images and the rhetoric were quite fierce. The term “polarizing” is not sufficient to describe the situation. I could easily hear calls to eradicate the enemies. The enemies, as they say, were within us and often worked as an extension of a foreign power. The foreign power, according to the pundits, varies: mainly the US or Israel, but sometimes, Germany, the UK or even China.

When I was commuting back home, I saw more people on the streets who were marching with slogans. The traffic was often interrupted by these groups. I arrived home with great concern and trepidation. My wife greeted me at the door:

– “What is happening, Ali?” she asked in fear.

– “I don’t know darling.”

– “I watched TV today and…” she said, but I interrupted.

– “You don’t watch TV, do you?”

– “But, today, this is different.”

– “Okay, please, don’t watch it. There is some sort of hatred in society. Everybody is angry for some reason,” I said and added: “As usual…”

– “As usual?” she asked, “I hope so…”

We didn’t turn on the TV and did not check our phones throughout the evening. And did not speak much. Before going to bed I checked my WhatsApp groups. I was a member of two groups: co-workers and university friends. People had left the group of university friends and just two remained: me and my friend Ahmet. I texted Ahmet and asked what was happening. He replied that he was not sure, but would let me know tomorrow.

Istanbul, Turkey – Anti-government protests – Alexandros Michailidis

We went to bed early. In the middle of the night we woke to the slogans of people outside. There may have been more than a hundred people and they were now marching in front of our home. As our apartment is on the first floor, their shadows were falling on our curtain if car lights hit them. They were chanting and carrying flags and posters and didn’t mind that it was late at night. I could see people in the apartment balconies expressing their support for the group. I remember their slogan “Death to the Traitors! Death to the Terrorists!” They were walking downtown, and I thought their group was becoming larger and larger as they marched.

We could not sleep for the rest of the night. In the morning, my wife asked me not to go to work. I objected and asked why I should worry. I was not a traitor and not a terrorist. Despite her insistence, I went to work. When I arrived at the office, I realized the transformation in people. They were behaving harshly and there was no minimum of politeness. Then I learned that one of our co-workers had been arrested by the police that morning on political charges. It was a shock for me as she was barely interested in politics, although I occasionally heard her voice dissent. Suddenly, two fuming co-workers hassled me, with one of them saying:

– “You are a friend of hers”

– “Yes,” I said, “We were all friends of hers.”

– “But you were closer to her than us.”

I was surprised by such bullying and intimidation but didn’t retreat:

– “She is a good person, I am sure there is something wrong, and she will be released.”

– “No” the same guy said, “She is a traitor and she can’t be released.”

Suddenly I remembered my wife at home and my promise not to get into trouble. I didn’t reply and tried to get back to my work. I finished that day under my co-workers’ surveillance and angry looks. When I was going back home, I realized that things had gotten out of control. I saw people beaten and shops looted. Signs of a cross were put on some doors and walls were rife with words of hate. Crowds were everywhere – chanting, burning flags and shouting angry slogans. When I returned home, my wife was crying, and she said she was concerned about our safety. “Everything will be fine,” I said. But when I checked my phone, I saw that I had been expelled from our WhatsApp group at work. Then I realized that it was them who reported my colleague to the police as a traitor. It would definitely be my turn next. I didn’t mention it to my wife, just calmed her again. But later in the evening my friend Ahmet called me.

– “Ali, there is an epidemic of hatred spreading from televisions and mobile phones,” he said. “Just stay away from them – especially Twitter – otherwise you will also be transformed.”

– “But what happened,” I asked.

– “I don’t know,” he said. “The time, the incubation period, they vary… Minutes or hours or days, but if you are overexposed to the TV or phone, you will be likely to join them. And if you become one of them, you will see anybody who is not transformed as an enemy or a traitor!”

– “Why do the police not intervene in this aggression?”

– “The police are on their side, my friend.”

– “But I have committed no crime!” I replied in shock.

– “If you are not infected, then you are a criminal,” he said.

Istanbul, Turkey – She passed silently – Ozan Safak

We could not sleep that night as the noise in the city was much greater. Crowds passed through the street again, but this time in large numbers and with burning sticks in their hand. A greater fear was spreading throughout the city. In the early morning I saw police cars on our block: They had raided an apartment across the street. They took a handcuffed couple to their car and left. This event increased our fear.

I decided not to go to work that day. I was not only worried about myself but also my wife. We spent the entire day at home and were not sure if we should leave the city and go somewhere else. But we decided not to, as we hope that this epidemic would be overcome in some way. In the meantime, I got a promise from my wife not to check the media on her phone.

That evening I received a text from my friend Ahmed,

– “You may not reach me from this phone any longer. If necessary, find Orhan. And don’t forget, they breathe too quickly, their faces are pale, and they are more active at night.”

– “Where are you my friend?”

He didn’t tell me but said:

– “Don’t forget, there is no cure for this disease of extremity!”

This was the last text I got from him. It marked the last moment he was “last seen” on WhatsApp. Orhan was our friend at University, the three of us had been very good friends. I did not have contact information for Orhan, however.

Istanbul, Turkey – Unrest – Alexandros Michailidis

That night was the most horrific. At some later hour, we suddenly recoiled as one of our windows was broken by a stone thrown from outside. We had already turned off our lights and double-locked the doors. Our windows were protected with iron bars. Nobody tried to enter our apartment, but we understood that we had also been blacklisted by them. At any time, we could be attacked.

Early in the morning we started to make a plan to escape somewhere else. My wife insisted that we go to her parents’ house in a town of Western Turkey. She called them. Her father’s voice was so loud that I heard it from her phone. She hung up and broke into tears.

– “They were transformed,” she said.

– “Don’t worry honey, I am sure they will recover in a few days. This is a passing event,” I replied and hugged her. Then I called my mother to check if we could stay with them. After our talk, my wife asked me with tearful eyes:

– “Are they available?”

– “She said that she would welcome us,” I replied. “But…”

– “But… what?” she asked angrily.

– “She said ‘say hello to your uncle’.”

– “But you don’t have an uncle.”

– “Yes, this was a codeword we agreed to years and years ago. If one of us is in trouble and can’t say it on the phone, we would use the phrase ‘say hello to your uncle’. Maybe my father has been transformed or she is just concerned that the police might be following us. In any case we can’t go there.”

In the end we decided to live in a cheap hotel away from Istanbul and stay there for a while. The city centers are more dangerous to live in. We stocked up on some food and started the journey later in the day. As we left the apartment, we realized that there was not much time: Our door also had a cross on it.

Istanbul, Turkey – Waiting – yns plt

Since we were afraid of being stopped by the police, we chose to travel on rarely used village roads. At the end of the day, we found a hotel where we planned to stay for a while. I lay down on the bed and fell asleep after days of insomnia. But it was not a restful sleep, interrupted and wracked by nightmares. At some point, I opened my eyes and saw my wife. She was sitting on a chair next to the bed. It was dark, but there was light on her face. It was the pale light of her mobile phone. She seemed so beautiful with the light making only her face visible in the middle of the darkness.

When I woke up in the morning, I realized that she had not slept at all. She had moved the chair to the window and was looking outside. I told her to go to the lobby to see if anything is available for breakfast. But when I tried to open the door, I realized that it was locked. Then we came eye to eye.

– “You have nowhere to escape,” she said furiously.

– “Darling?” I replied in a daze. But she repeated:

– “You have nowhere to escape.”

At that moment, I realized that she was infected by the virus of extremity, probably through the phone at night. But I could not accept this.

– “You know me honey, I am not a bad person.”

– “You are our nation’s enemy and a criminal,” she replied. “You asked me to not check social media to hide the truth.”

As I was trying to convince her, there was a knock at the door. It was the police. I immediately put two bed stands in front of the door to block the entry of the police. However, my wife started to remove them. Then we had a scuffle in the room, with the police trying to get inside. I managed to put her in the bathroom and lock it. The room was on the first floor, but it was not low enough to jump from the window. As we did in our high school dormitory, I tied together two bed covers and attached the end of one of them to the leg of the bed. As I scrambled down the façade this way, I heard my wife break the window of the bathroom door and scream, “You, traitor!”

Yil Sitesi, Turkey – Are clouds the reflection of our thoughts? – Muzaffar Abasov

I escaped from there in my car. I drove the village roads again to not get caught by the police. After staying in the car for a day and night, I remembered a place to hide. It was the cottage of Orhan’s family, not used and abandoned years ago. It was in a deserted and safe place, a rural area of Nevşehir, Cappadocia. This was also where Ahmet, Orhan and I went occasionally. I arrived at the cottage after 8 hours of driving. When I arrived there, I saw a car waiting outside. I had no doubt that it was Orhan’s car. Indeed, Orhan appeared at the gate and greeted me.

– “I was expecting you or Ahmet,” he said.

He had rearranged the inside of the cottage and it was in better condition than I remembered. I explained what I had experienced from the very beginning. When I finished the story, he asked:

– “Can you believe that everybody in the street is wrong and you are right?”

– “Everybody in the street thinks that I am a criminal,” I replied. “But I am not.”

– “People just want you to think like them…to behave like them.”

– “They have gone crazy, my friend, full of hatred… The ultimate degree of polarization. I saw people stabbing oranges to protest the Netherlands and burning one-dollar banknotes to protest America. Yesterday two Koreans were beaten as they were thought to be Chinese. And the perpetrators defended themselves by saying that all slant-eyes are Chinese to them. I don’t want to be one of them, Orhan!”

– “Turks are unique Ali. We have a lot of enemies and under such conditions each person in society is required to respect the authority. Tolerance and harmony are sham terms, devised to dilute our national resistance to the external powers.”

While he was trying to convince me to change my mind, I heard a motor outside. Then I saw the reflection of a police car’s flashing lights on the window. I had no power to escape or resist. As the police were coming inside, I recalled the promise we had made each other years ago:

Elazığ, Turkey – It is raining – Atilla Bingöl

– “Friend, do you remember we once agreed not to allow each other to be dragged into any sort of extremism, like racism or fundamentalism. This is the time to remember that promise, I believe.”

– “Yes,” he replied, “I remember that day very well. But we forgot to add exceptions for extraordinary situations. This is different, Ali. Our nation is passing through an ordeal. We both have the chance to serve our government and nation. I did it, and you can also do it.”

My effort was useless. The police arrested me and took me into custody.

While I was entering the cell, I thought that everything has changed so quickly. It was just a week. I lost my family, my wife and friends. I was a respected person in my country now charged with being a terrorist.

The room was dark and there was somebody else in it. It was Ahmet! We hugged each other as if we had not met in years. I was happy to find him in the cell, but sad to see that he was also arrested. With this emotional dilemma in mind, I had the feeling that the cell could be safer than living in a polarized society which is completely engulfed by hatred and extremity.

S.A. Dastan

Snapshot 1: Heval Binasi, Turkey – In the eye – Kerem Karaarslan (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Ankara, Turkey – Protests – Cagkan Sayin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Istanbul, Turkey – Anti-government protests – Alexandros Michailidis (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Istanbul, Turkey – She passed silently – Ozan Safak (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Istanbul, Turkey – Unrest – Alexandros Michailidis (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Istanbul, Turkey – Waiting – yns plt (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Yil Sitesi, Turkey – Are clouds the reflection of our thoughts? – Muzaffar Abasov (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: Elazığ, Turkey – It is raining – Atilla Bingöl (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 36 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
CW 39 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 40 – Columbia – Christian Escobar
CW 41 – Kenya – Kenn Mwangi
CW 42 – Pakistan – Muhammad Kashif Shahid
CW 43 – Tunisia – Sarah Turki
CW 44 – Estonia – Margot Arula
CW 45 – Ghana/Nigeria – Ekua Ortsin
CW 46 – Dominican Republic – Aura De Los Santos
CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – ???
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 51 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
CW 52 – Nigeria – Ethelbert Umeh
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Javier Gomez
“Sorry to confuse you, but all that you know is wrong
And there’s just no name for what’s gone on.”

Antimatter, Everything You Know Is Wrong

Like many of us, I grew up in a mostly polarized social environment. There was us versus them conditioning, a binary conception of the world that seemed to be embedded in the average psyche. When I was a kid, it was most evident in football. My city has two major teams whose fans have always hated the other side with a vehemence that would not be out of place in a late 80s action movie, and the same scenario is repeated in most of the country, with varying degrees of violence, to this very day.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Pedestrians and traffic – Nick Photoworld

When I started growing up, the pattern kept appearing in different settings. One of my harshest memories of this is in the form of high school pestering (I wouldn’t go so far as to call it bullying). When I was fourteen, I became obsessed with music. It was the grunge era, and that scene brought about my first serious crush with distorted guitars and angst-ridden lyrics. From there, I delved into all kinds of music across the spectrum. In a couple of years, I had amassed a decent collection of mostly pirated tapes where classic death metal from Florida coexisted with foundational albums from the sixties and synth pop. Having an eclectic musical taste was, and still is, a source of pride for me. I also thought it made me cool, so I talked about music all the time and recommended artists to anyone within range.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Florida street – Spectral Design

One day, I was wearing a Rolling Stones hoodie while praising Anthrax and I started getting heckled by a guy whose main function in life seemed to be harassing everyone. He started asking if I liked this band, and that other one, and what about this one? Most of my answers were yes, because I didn’t feel the need to lie. But people where suddenly laughing at my expense, because how could you like Suffocation and Prince at the same time? You had to pick one side. Metal or pop. Cool kid or nerd. Us or them. I didn’t have the tools that I have now, but the current me would have answered that it was all music and so it was all valuable.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Hanging out – Michele Rinaldi

I have encountered replicas of that situation many times over the following years. Some of them were not as harmless as the musical dichotomy. In recent years, the inability to grasp that not everything is one side against another has taken a darker turn. As some of us seem to move to a more tolerant, inclusive and compassionate way of living, there is a counter-tide rising in the form of what could only be described as a return to archaic ideas.

Moreno, Argentina – The willow in fog – José Ignacio Pompé

2018 was the year when I learned in horror that there are far right-wing camps in Argentina providing combat training and using nefarious historical personalities as symbols. It was also the year where our senate rejected the bill to legalize abortion, thus denying women what should be a basic right and perpetuating the cycle of violence against them. And yet these actions might actually be a small and pathetic effort by old-fashioned schools of thought against inevitable evolution. Those old ways are usually tied to a ruling elite and based on extreme, absolute notions that stem from religious thought and tradition. They seek to divide us and force us to be on one side or the other, and it’s even more profitable for the powers that be if we end up hating each other in the process. Division feeds on fear, and we saw it at work in Brazil during the 2018 election, where a despicable bigot became president via fear mongering. The campaigners even used anti-communist notions taken straight out of the McCarthy era.

Buenos Aires, Argentina – Evening – Matias Wong

But I think there’s a simple explanation for this, and I believe we shouldn’t see it as an us or them situation. Or maybe we should, but at an individual level. There’s a rift in all of us, implanted as we grow up and learn about life. We are taught to perceive everything as a dual scenario and one of the sides always has to win, to conquer the other. And so, otherness becomes the enemy. As a certainly not-open-minded writer once said, the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown. Violent species as we are, the human approach to overcoming that fear has usually been to destroy what causes it. And that is just one of the myriad of things we have been doing wrong throughout history.

Purmamarca, Argentina – The shopping mile – Angelo D’Amico

Our goal should be learning about what is alien to us. Know your so-called enemy, and the animosity will fade. But to achieve that, one has to delve deeper into the inner foe, the one that’s on the other side of the canyon inside us. The tiny, angry voice that shouts in frustration because it doesn’t want to see that we’re all the same. We all have one of those pesky voices, as proved constantly by the open-minded individuals who suddenly become conservative when they approach middle age. I know many of those; I went to school with them. They are wrong, but we should teach them why instead of calling them names. I struggle to shut the inner reactionary’s words down and understand what they’re saying at the same time.

Cordoba, Argentina – Afternoon break – DAscaino Foto

When I do this, I find that there are always more than two sides, and that all their points of view might be valid in some way. Except for the intolerant ones. We should send those to the void of forgotten thoughts so they can never come back.

Javier Gomez

Credits

Snapshot 1: Puerto Madryn, Argentina – On the coast – Salvatore Ferri (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Pedestrians and traffic – Nick Photoworld (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Florida street – Spectral Design (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Hanging out – Michele Rinaldi (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Moreno, Argentina – The willow in fog – José Ignacio Pompé (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Buenos Aires, Argentina – Evening – Matias Wong (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Purmamarca, Argentina – The shopping mile – Angelo D’Amico (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Cordoba, Argentina – Afternoon break – DAscaino Foto (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Lillian Julber

Even though the church has been separated from the state since the first decade of the twentieth century, the church’s negative view of homosexuality made it seem non-existent in Uruguay for many, many years. Maybe it wasn’t, but obvious examples were few and far between, and ignored by both the people and legislation.

They hid and were hidden. Sure, there were many people, mostly men, who were thought to be gay or were whispered about, but there was no proof, and a vast majority of them were married to women and had children so they would pass for heterosexual. While they actively hid their nature, parents also did this with children. When there was an unmarried young gay man in a family, other members tried to hide it, and if it was a young woman, she was simply considered a “spinster.” No questions were asked about relationships when it came to inheritance and the like as people passed away.

Punta del Este, Uruguay – On the beach – NRuArg

In the late twentieth century, we saw a little more flexibility, especially in terms of accepting gay males and in legislation, for example, with the recognition of civil unions, but it was not until a few years ago that gay marriages were allowed by law, and some famous people decided to come out of the closet and get married. At this time, a very strong feminist movement also started to become active and defend the rights of discriminated groups in general.

Punta del Este, Uruguay – People relaxing – NRuArg

So far, so good. There were opinions on both sides but nothing too extreme. However, a couple of years ago, rights and protection were extended to transsexuality, with laws passed to allow them to undergo operations paid for by the government in order to change the biological sex they had been assigned since birth, and these decisions made many people complain, arguing that the government often denies access to costly medicine or treatment for possible terminal illness by saying there is not enough money. The critics asked whether those very same resources should be used for something they did not consider to be a priority. Furthermore, transsexuals were sort of rewarded with a list of benefits that included a special pension for those who were old, as repayment for former suffering, free theatre tickets to the most prestigious theater in the capital, employment quotas that were added to the already existing ones for handicapped people and other minorities.

Punta del Este, Uruguay – Parada 1 – elbud

In addition to this, a manual was developed for sexual education in schools run by the government and also private accredited schools, beginning with kids at the age of three, and in this manual it was affirmed that sex is not a biological but a social construct, and it included a section with practical exercises, where kids, as I have mentioned, starting at the age of three, were supposed to lay on mats on the floor, and caress each other all around their bodies, including their private parts, which many parents read simply as group masturbation.

Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay – On the pier – N.F. Photography

All these changes have taken place in the course of a couple of years and it has been confusing. In fact, pandemonium ensued. To many it seemed that all these measures and laws had turned their lives upside down; that if you were not gay, transsexual, handicapped or a feminist, if you were a simple heterosexual male or female, you had become abnormal.

There have been articles in the newspapers defending one position or the other, mostly depending on the political orientation of the media. But since social media networks have become the arena where most people vent their opinions, sometimes nicely, sometimes with jokes, but often violently, these topics have become the subject of very heated arguments, swearing and insulting, with all kinds of eternal threads.

Montevideo, Uruguay – Downtown – Matyas Rehak

One wonders. How can a balance be found? It is obvious that all minorities should be respected, but to a certain point what is happening here seems to go beyond respect, becoming almost an extreme, practically an exaggeration; and measures which should have promoted better understanding and tolerance between individuals and collective groups are apparently achieving the exact opposite result.

Why is this happening? Has there always been hatred and discrimination among our population? Have these measures been taken in a manner which is too abrupt, too imposing, not considering our people’s attitudes and beliefs?

Montevideo, Uruguay – Crossing – Martina Pellecchia

How long will it take for the waters to calm down? What will be required? Why do so many people feel their rights are not being considered at the moment when the rights of such minorities are? Or is it not the fact that they are being considered but the way in which they are being considered?

Another point to be highlighted is employment quotas; even if competitive applications are fair, in a country with unemployment running above 8%, after quotas are met for handicapped people, racial diversity, and now sexual diversity, others cannot be sure they will get a job regardless of how high they score on application tests since positions for minorities are designated before scoring any tests; and that makes people angry. Here we see the complicated tension between meritocracy and equality.

Montevideo, Uruguay – Downtown 2 – Matyas Rehak

The big question is: Can you change people’s mind and prejudices by simply imposing laws and trying to force ideas on them? Or should there be educational campaigns where these matters become part of a comprehensive workshop, where people of all walks of life jointly collaborate in activities that do not specifically relate to their sexual identity but can help them understand that these others, working by their side, are similar to them, have the same good intentions and feelings, and that people are not defined by their sexual orientation but by their emotions, education and goals in life?

Our country will have to find a good answer to this question and others that have arisen and/or will arise in the future to avoid extreme polarization in this matter, which, often, is the cause of violence.

Lillian Julber

Credits

Snapshot 1: Punta del Este, Uruguay – Relaxing – NRuArg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Punta del Este, Uruguay – On the beach – NRuArg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Punta del Este, Uruguay – People relaxing – NRuArg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Punta del Este, Uruguay – Parada 1 – elbud (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay – On the pier – N.F. Photography (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Montevideo, Uruguay – Downtown – Matyas Rehak (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Montevideo, Uruguay – Crossing – Martina Pellecchia (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Montevideo, Uruguay – Downtown 2 – Matyas Rehak (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Macarena Larranaga

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Sebastião Sem

As far as most people can tell, Portugal has yet to be contaminado by one of the populistas that have been popping up throughout Europa. Everyone knows the nomes, so I won’t bother repeating them here; but our cantinho à beira mar plantado – our little corner, planted by the sea – seems to be insulated against the storm of extreme polarização. The underlying razões for this seem difficult to pinpoint, but I’d like to take a shot at it.

Lisbon, Portugal – Passing – Pragmart

Polarização seems anathema to the Portuguese spirit. Once a nation of sailors, explorers and colonizers, we’ve since become a people of brandos costumes – that is to say, mild-mannered customs and traditions, although that oft-used tradução doesn’t quite do the original justiça. These dias, the expression is mostly used as an insulto directed by one Portuguese at all others; it’s shorthand, a quick way of saying that we’re all soft, dopes, easily taken advantage of by the powers that be, totós, sheeple, conformistas. I do agree that we are a people of brandos costumes, but am fervently against the noção that makes us dopes.

Lisbon, Portugal – Over Lisbon – John Sting

I do believe that these brandos costumes are one of the main reasons we seem to be weathering the storm of populism, a safe harbour of “moderateness” in the face of the rising polarização that has hopefully culminou in Brexit and in the eleição of He Who Shall Not Be Named. And unlike some of my countryfolk, I view these brandos costumes as an overwhelmingly positive, and defining, national trait, at least to the extent that such a thing really existe. I also find that the valores a people chooses to identify with are perhaps more interesting than the qualities others assign them; a self-portrait might not be an indicação of verdade absoluta – absolute truth –, but it is certainly revealing of a truth. And this is how we view ourselves: as a people of brandos costumes, desenrascados (another untranslatable word sometimes rendered as “to McGyver something up,” related to the French désemmerdé, i.e. to get oneself out of the shit one is in), hospitaleiros – hospitable and welcoming –, diplomáticos, pragmáticos. Being able to reach compromises is a skill cherished by any true pragmatic, and polarização, which axiomatically requer no compromises whatsoever, has had a hard time trying to lodge itself into Portuguese sociedade. And it seems improvável that a self-described hospitable people would fear the Outro, rather than embrace it.

Porto, Portugal – A snack – John Tecuceanu

Of course, I don’t mean to say polarização cannot be found at all in Portugal. It undoubtedly can. We do have extremist parties on both political wings. There are certainly racistas and xenófobos to be found. But, that being said, the vast majority of people vote for slightly left- or right-of-center parties, and take pride in keeping the Portuguese tradição of hospitalidade alive and well.

Aveiro, Portugal – On the street – Ricardo Resende

A good exemplo of our “brandos costumes” – including the connotation of sheepishness often associated with the term – can be found in the events surrounding the recent yellow vest / gilet jaune protests and the “rise” of the movimento in Portugal. Since the protestos are still fresh in everyone’s minds, I don’t think a refresher is necessary, but suffice it to say that violence was commonplace during the Paris protests, not unlike most protests which have Paris as their backdrop. By contrast, in one of the few protests by coletes amarelos in Portugal, the protesters were calmly (and comically) corralled by police, and dispersed afterwards with little commotion.

Lisbon, Portugal – In the alley – Vita Marija Murenaite

To their crédito, the French do not take any crap whatsoever and they make sure their voices are heard. It is true that Portugal doesn’t share the historical French protest cultura and it takes us a bit longer to reach a feverish pitch. But we aren’t dopes or sheep – we’re the people of the Revolução dos Cravos, the Carnation Revolution, unique, at least as far as I’m aware, for being a revolution where absolutely no blood was shed. Those are our brandos costumes: peaceful, if not timely, revolução. Somewhat amusingly (at least to me), even the Fascist ditadura overthrown by the Revolution was wishy-washy in how it played both the Allies and Axis during the Second World War, maintaining comercial relationships with the Axis powers while simultaneamente allowing Jews to escapar persecution at the hands of the Nazis (and, if you haven’t heard of Arístides de Sousa Mendes, the Portuguese Schindler as he’s often called, I would recommend looking him up) – all the while giving the Allies permission to use the strategically located Azorean islands as air fields. And, while I don’t really want to delve into all of the problemas of Portuguese colonialismo here, I’d argue that this general mild-manneredness of ours has contributed a povo, at least in parte, to the facto that Portugal has somehow managed to maintain amicable relationships with our former colónias.

Porto, Portugal – In the library – Kevin Langlais

Em jeito de conclusão – to wrap things up –, I have to confess I have no idea what has made this moderateness such a defining característica of modern Portugalidade – Portugueseness. I doubt anyone really can, and that’s assuming the question isn’t “wrong” at the outset, assuming there is such a thing as Portugalidade, which is a big ask, if you want my opinion. Maybe it was the football, the fado or Fátima – a synecdoche for catolicismo – that made us this way. I have seen this gentler/dopier natureza being ascribed to, rather poetically, our fiery latin natures being tempered by the cool Atlantic breeze. And who knows, maybe that’s it.

Sebastião Sem

Credits

Snapshot 1: Garrao Beach, Portugal – Shadowed – Henrique Macedo (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Lisbon, Portugal – Passing – Pragmart (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Lisbon, Portugal – Over Lisbon – John Sting (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Porto, Portugal – A snack – John Tecuceanu (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Aveiro, Portugal – On the street – Ricardo Resende (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Lisbon, Portugal – In the alley – Vita Marija Murenaite (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Porto, Portugal – In the library – Kevin Langlais (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: José Soveral

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Nigina Kanunova

The development of an individual, society, a country as well as humanity is, from a philosophical point of view, impossible without polarization.

Polarization (wherever it may be) is a completely natural impetus for movement and development, a search for a way out of what seems to be an impasse.

It’s hard enough to talk about polarization and personality without touching on everything that is happening around us.

Here is a simple example: recently, my country was on the verge of peace and chaos. A civil war that broke out in the country destroyed the peaceful life of society as a whole, inflicting quite significant damage on everyone, without exception. Remember the popular quotation: “It is impossible to live in society and be free from society”? This is the case. No one can say that we are outside of society and outside the life of society.

Khorog, Tajikistan – Hello – Fredy Thuerig

Not long ago we were in the same situation, but today we are worlds apart. This “abyss” has been formed everywhere: in families, in society, in the world. On one side of the scale – you, on the other – everyone else.

It’s a shame that often we do not try to understand each other, although every rational person is aware that life without each other is simply impossible.

It is impossible to touch polarization with your hands or taste it. It can only be felt and experienced by us.

Just an example. My mother was fond of painting, but never painted pictures. She taught literature in an institution of higher education. The war has greatly changed her attitude and perception of the world. She began to create paintings, poems, stories, articles. Her first exhibition took place within 6 months. Later she was told by some friend of hers: “If you did not go into deep creative work, you would have just gone crazy…”

As we can see, intuitively, she chose (found) the right way out of two polarized worlds…

Dushanbe, Tajikistan – At the market – paparazzza

Society also lives constantly in search of a way out. Agreed, it happens that we make mistakes; it happens that this mistaken choice is also delayed, but there is always hope that reason will prevail over recklessness. For instance, in Afghanistan, after 40 years of war the people still cannot come to the opposite point, the pole that is called peace, which will bring tranquility and joy, smile and love into public life and into the life of every representative of the country.

Everyone chases happiness, but do we really know what it is? Sometimes it seems that we are the only creatures in the world who cannot answer this question. The number of military conflicts, wars around the world, violence, cruelty, humiliation can serve as proof of my words. Sometimes “happiness” oversteps the bounds of decency, we get greedy and want more and more in unacceptable ways and have an unbound “appetite,” a hankering for power and money leads to the destruction of the individual and society as such. We chase “happiness” and forget to be human, we hurt and stop thinking, but the first rule in every chase is to remain human. Freedom is doing what you like, but there is a huge difference between freedom and permissiveness that can turn us into monsters.

Dushanbe, Tajikistan – Shah Mansur Bazaar – Ron Ramtang

Opposites always attract and thus we get the desired result. Even in romantic relationships, friendship, we often become attracted to people we have nothing in common with. Though it is a complicated issue and we should consider many aspects including age, sometimes religion, loneliness, psychology and even financial matters. But nevertheless, only through trial and error are we able to achieve the intended effect and find true soulmates and friends… per aspera ad astra.

Here are some more examples of polarization: The Doctor of Philosophy works as a bus driver, the Doctor of Agricultural Science works as a sanitary technician, the owner-seller of a small store has two university degrees (both diplomas with honors), my uncle (a PhD Candidate in Biology) had to leave his scientific work and start to work at a secondary school for reasons beyond his control, due to circumstances in society.

What happens in society and in the life of each individual member when we meet with such seemingly incomprehensible situations?

There is the usual search for a way out of the impasse in which people are driven by circumstance. Yes, a philosopher could possibly bring more benefits in the field of philosophy, and a biologist could make a big contribution in biology. It often happens that life breaks us, or frankly speaking we break each other.

But things past cannot be recalled: for good or for ill we made our choice. Life circumstances force us to take this step.

Khorog, Tajikistan – A portrait – Fredy Thuerig

My uncle was all about science: he wrote many scientific articles; he was an amazingly knowledgeable person in his field … He could bring so much benefit to the country in terms of forestry development … But… reasons and circumstances that did not depend on his opinion and will turned everything in a different way.

The world is so boundless and beautiful, it is important for us to recognize it and strive to learn it, discover it for ourselves and others, hence life without polarization would simply come to naught. It’s like a battery with two contacts (+ and -) that depend on each other, we cannot get the desired result without both of them (current, light, etc.).

No seed, no sprout, but the seed will not germinate without irrigation and sun. In this polarized world we must go to each other to meet with peace and smile, to bring good, not evil.

Then we will feel that we are needed on this small Planet Earth.

We are different (polar opposites) in many ways: in views and language, in customs and traditions, in faith and color, but we are the unified whole in one thing – we are humanity.

Dushanbe, Tajikistan – Cityscape – Vershinin

Karl Sandberg (an American poet) wrote in his 1936 poem “The People, Yes”:

I am credulous about the destiny of man,
I believe more than I can ever prove
of the future of the human race
and the importance of illusions,
the value of great expectations.
I would like to be in the same moment
an earthworm (which I am) and
a rider to the Moon (which I am).

Fann Mountains, Tajikistan – Nomads – Kristesoro

Here you have a whole bunch of opposites in the life of society: the destiny of man and the future of humanity, illusions and expectations, an earthworm and an astronaut.

Is it possible to throw out one, devoting oneself entirely to the other? Absolutely not!

Each of us has their own destiny, but also hopes for the future of mankind.

Life without illusions is also impossible, as well as without high expectations carrying something new, as well as the realization of hopes.

Remember the words of Chief Seattle: “The earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. All things are connected like the blood that unites one family. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. The earth is sacred and men and animals are but one part of it. Treat the earth with respect so that it lasts for centuries to come and is a place of wonder and beauty for our children”.

Vrang, Tajikistan – In front of the hot springs – Fredy Thuerig

Man, in essence, is tied to Mother Earth on which he was born and lives (I am an earthworm), but, on the other hand, man is directed toward the cosmos, which gradually reveals its secrets.

The aspiration to reach the sky is a quite understandable desire of a person seeking to self-search and know another world: the world of the cosmos (I am an astronaut).

Whatever we do and wherever we go, let us meet each other with kindness, let us be responsible for our actions, let us be careful with the hearts and dreams of each other. All we need is courage to be what we are and to follow our true destination, it is not a place, but a way of looking at life and Mother Earth.

Nigina Kanunova

Credits

Snapshot 1: Tajikistan – Bulunkul – Lukas Bischoff Photography (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Khorog, Tajikistan – Hello – Fredy Thuerig (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Dushanbe, Tajikistan – At the market – paparazzza (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Dushanbe, Tajikistan – Shah Mansur Bazaar – Ron Ramtang (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Khorog, Tajikistan – A portrait – Fredy Thuerig (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Dushanbe, Tajikistan – Cityscape – Vershinin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Fann Mountains, Tajikistan – Nomads – Kristesoro (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Vrang, Tajikistan – In front of the hot springs – Fredy Thuerig (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Polina Karpova

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Jelena Sekulić

When asked to describe our country, every one of us mentions the most beautiful places, the most prominent aspects of our way of life, the points in history that fill the history books with stories testifying to our glorious ancestors and their great deeds. We also like to talk about the food that is the best in the world and the things you must try, describing them in such succulent words and gestures that we make the visitor believe them even without tasting a single bite. Finally, the poor stranger listens to you talk about the music and dances and customs and books and films and people who created all those things forming what could be called the collective being of a nation.

Belgrade, Serbia – On the street – Miamia

Painting this portrait of our country, we stick to the beautiful, ignoring all those little imperfections that appear on every face no matter how attractive it may be. It often happens that even the faces we adore sometimes appear repulsive; some movement of a brow or a lip makes us appalled and stunned to the extent that we start questioning the justification of our adoration and zeal. This exact feeling arises when the topic of Serbia’s polarized culture comes up.

Vlasotince, Serbia – Epiphany – Maximilian

On one side, there is the millennial tradition of folk songs depicting all aspects of life, from love and family to war, heroism and the deepest turmoil of the human soul. This was the basis for the folk music of the 20th century that filled kafanas (a kafana is a Serbian bar, coffee shop or tavern where people go for a drink and listen to live folk music; a place that has to be experienced to be understood). There is also the Serbian modern music scene with all the genres you can name: rock and roll, jazz, pop, rap, house, rock, heavy metal, hip-hop, techno… And classical music also has its firm place in the tapestry of Serbian music as well.

Novi Sad, Serbia – A gig – Aleksandar Kamasi

On the other side, there is the world of identical-looking creatures with hair extensions, fake nails, eyelashes, pouted fake lips that perform the kind of music called turbo folk – music with oriental rhythm mixed with elements of pop, catchy choruses and simple lines of text that easily go with the twisting tunes. The videos accompanying the songs consist of hypnotizing movements by half-naked girls mimicking sexual acts while male performers attract their target audience by showing six-packs, expensive cars and jewelry.

These two parallel worlds exist without any common ground so that two people belonging to them could easily live within a radius of one hundred meters of each other without having any chance of meeting – they might as well live on completely different planets.

Sombor, Serbia – Talking – Nenad Nedomacki

Polarizacija is also quite evident in the world of literature, in the works produced in Serbian and those translated from other languages. While there are authors whose works show a high degree of deliberation, exquisite usage of the Serbian language and immense respect for the reader as an intelligent being, there are also highly popular texts with predictable content, a limited vocabulary and a false belief that having an attitude means being rude and pushy. Somehow, the interest of Serbian readers is shifting from the world’s classics to celebrities’ biographies and fiction of questionable quality. While the majority of Serbian booklovers still look for something to intrigue their minds and higher levels of self, there is this other group of unfortunately young people who seem not to be able to read at all. Quite recently, a journalist interviewed people in the streets of Serbia asking them what their opinion was about the Serbian president meeting a Russian arms dealer named Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (“puška” means rifle in Serbian and the pronunciation resembles the great poet’s last name). A quite considerable number of young people were disturbed by it and they criticized the president for having any business with such a person. Some even claimed that they had seen photos of the two of them at a meeting. What makes this even more shocking is that Pushkin’s novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, is obligatory reading in Serbian schools.

Pirot, Serbia – At the corner – Dimitar Kazakov

Serbian television programs are also seriously polarized and the population is divided into two camps: those who watch reality programs and sensation-mongering shows and the people who watch documentaries, debates or entertaining shows with good music, intelligent humor and high-quality use of language. For a country of 7 million people, Serbia has a significant number of TV stations and each one of them is fighting for good ratings by any means necessary. An open fight for every person with a remote control created reality programs that are broadcasted all day long with characters so peculiar that even the most imaginative fiction writer could hardly invent them. These characters have become exceptionally popular in the circle of people who spend their precious free time watching them, and they have become a part of everyday conversations over a cup of coffee. Fortunately, there are people who don’t know that such characters exist and refuse to accept such a decline in common sense, living oblivious to their neighbors who can’t wait to see how the fight between two empty, insignificant personae will end.

Belgrade, Serbia – My story – Ljubica Arsić

When thinking about this phenomenon in Serbian culture, it is hard not to look for the roots of this saddening situation. The first thing that comes to mind is a lack of education, but this can be argued because all the public schools in Serbia are using the same curriculum and there is no difference where a person is educated, they are going to get the same quality of education. And it is the same system that has produced all the people who go to the theaters, speak foreign languages, visit art galleries and read more serious literature. Some may blame the influence of other cultures and the internet but the question still arises – why is it that everyone is exposed to the same influences and yet only some acquire these negative tendencies?

Belgrade, Serbia – Belgrade is eating me – Marija Zaric

Whatever the cause may be, there is the fact that Serbian society is polarized in this cultural sense and the two sides are unable to understand each other. It would be interesting to hear how those polarized sides describe our beloved Serbia and whether those portraits would have anything in common. In the meantime, we will have to accept the fact that the truth lies where the two images overlap, and only outsiders can experience both sides, unlike the people captured in the images.

Jelena Sekulić

Credits

Snapshot 1: Belgrade, Serbia – Inside – Alex Blokstra (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Vlasotince, Serbia – Epiphany – Maximilian (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Sombor, Serbia – Talking – Nenad Nedomacki (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Novi Sad, Serbia – A gig – Aleksandar Kamasi (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Belgrade, Serbia – On the street – Miamia (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Pirot, Serbia – At the corner – Dimitar Kazakov (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Belgrade, Serbia – My story – Ljubica Arsić (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: Belgrade, Serbia – Belgrade is eating me – Marija Zaric (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Caterina Piagentini

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Daniela Cannarella

The first time I really had to deal with huge contradictions was some years ago, when I decided the topic of my master’s thesis in archaeology. Eventually, I chose to analyze the impact of Greek colonization on the indigenous communities of Eastern Sicily and the relations between Greeks and Siculi during the VIII and VII centuries BC in the colonies of Naxos, Lentini and Syracuse.1 It was an opportunity to reflect on an encounter/clash provoked by cultural and ethnic differences, a chance to reflect on the Sicily of the past and the Sicily of today. Sicily, as well as Italy, is a place full of contradictions, opposites, some so common that we may not notice them, but other so significant that we have to know how to manage them.

Italy – Broken – Chris Barbalis

In more or less six months, I read and studied many dissimilar theories, different perspectives, which I would never have thought so numerous and linked to each other. First, I understood that the method used for the archaeological identification of past cultures had led some British and American archaeologists to place the theme of identity at the center of their studies. One of the most prominent ones even declared that “archaeology is fundamentally a discipline concerned with identity.”2 I wondered how it was possible that most of the Italian archaeologists have long refused to deal with this topic and consider it strictly connected to historical studies. I soon realized that this issue often provoked not just debates, but real confrontations within academic environments.

Taormina, Italy – Stairs to Taormina – Luca N

Some Italian university teachers and researchers believe that archeologists must do without the concept of identità as tool for analyzing phenomena or behavior because they cannot have direct access to the ideas and perceptions of ancient peoples. While for other disciplines the data are analyzed within their context, forcing archaeologists to recreate that context through the same objects, and it is inevitable that modern debates can influence our ideas about ancient polarization in social identity. The question is: “when can such presumed groups of people legitimately be assumed to have considered themselves to be distinct from other contemporary social groups of human beings?”3

Cagliari, Italy – Direct – Nicola Fioravanti

For the first time in my life I realized that ancient polarization based on identity (us vs. them) is still alive in universities and colleges, altered by distance and time, discussed in new language, in Italy, in Europe and all over the world. This polarization influences our thoughts and our feelings about modern immigration and the ability to imagine a multicultural future based on societies in which equal respect for the various cultures is a habit, and policies promote the preservation of cultural diversity. For this reason, I chose to include the theme of identity in my research. Identity, a source of clashes or a resource to understand the past better, is the right way to cognize us, a key to understanding the present era.

Naviglio, Italy – Up against the wall – Chris Barbalis

A large number of indigenous sites dating back to the Iron Age characterized Eastern Sicily, the land of some of the oldest Greek colonization with poleis like Syracuse and Naxos. Different cultures, different languages, different ways of thinking were found in the same territory. In each context, I analyzed convergences and divergences between literary sources and material evidence to test the existence of hostility between the Indigenous and the Hellenic component in the new settlements. According to the Greek literary tradition, Greek colonization involved the use of force against the people already settled, but the material data often do not confirm violent and traumatic events.

Cefalú, Taormina, Italy – In the cove – Ruth Troughton

The clashes between Greeks and Persians in the V century BC strongly influenced the historians who, more or less unconsciously, have often projected such negative experiences into the colonial past. I realized that just as the future is influenced by the past so even past thoughts and stories about people living two or three centuries ago had been altered by today’s polarization in social identity (us vs. them).

Rome, Italy – Consulting – Cristina Gottardi

The model of coexistence between Greeks and Siculi was too simplistic too. A theory that highlights the interactive process leading to the change of both the indigenous and colonial culture may be the best way to explicate the perception that they had of themselves – a world where various identities were influenced by each other, where everything was ruptured, but also meeting. The initial relationships with the Siculi did not have to result in immediate conflict, and a model based on integrated economics may have frequently led to historical situations in which the maintenance of differences was considered the most useful choice to make.

Naples, Italy – Illusion – Bertrand Gabioud

The colonial experience acted as a catalyst, especially for the perception that the Greeks in the new settlements had of themselves. In fact, they were experimenting with the reproduction of existing models in the motherland, retained partially thanks to relations with their original homeland, which undoubtedly were changed and adapted because of the interaction with the indigenous populations. It’s the same phenomenon that characterizes the thousands of immigrants and refugees arriving in Sicily, in Italy, not to found new cities, as Greeks did in the past, but to escape from wars and have new opportunities to live; the result is the same extraordinary network between different cultural backgrounds and new ways of living.

Padova, Italy – Testing – Matteo Minoglio

At the end of my work I wondered what word I would use the most to define the duality between identities, between cultures. It was “dicotomia”, which derives from the Greek word διχοτομία, the division of an entity into two parts that are mutually exclusive but complementary. Now I am sure we are all made up of separate but closely related parts, in union and not in contrast. I realized that the extremes in past and present life, that can shape our identity, the tools we choose to understand the world, should not be opposed and should not be reconciled, but understood and kept safe, because they are all part of us, they are who we are.

Daniela Cannarella


Notes

1. D.Cannarella, Greci ed indigeni nella Sicilia Orientale, Master’s Degree Thesis, 2014.

2. A. Gardner, Paradox and Praxis in the Archaeology of Identity, in L. Amundsen-Meyer – N.Engel- S.Pickering , “Identity Crisis: Archaeological Perspectives on Social Identity. Proceedings of the 42nd (2010) Annual Chacmool Archaeology Conference, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta”, Calgary, 2011, pp. 11-26.

3. S. Shennan, Archaeological Approaches to Cultural Identity, London, 1994.

Credits

Snapshot 1: Sulzano, Italy – Walking on water – Chris Barbalis (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Italy – Broken – Chris Barbalis (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Taormina, Italy – Stairs to Taormina – Luca N (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Cagliari, Italy – Direct – Nicola Fioravanti (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: Naviglio, Italy – Up against the wall – Chris Barbalis (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Cefalú, Taormina, Italy – In the cove – Ruth Troughton (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Rome, Italy – Consulting – Cristina Gottardi (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: Naples, Italy – Illusion – Bertrand Gabioud (Unsplash)

Snapshot 9: Padova, Italy – Testing – Matteo Minoglio (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Marika C.

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies. May 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Aleksandar Protić

If they hadn’t heard of it before, everybody learned about the Balkans in the 1990s due to a series of bloody conflicts in the area formerly known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. I was about to write “international conflicts,” but back then, Yugoslavia was a single nation. It first appeared as a state after WWI – initially known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and later as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The kingdom, as well as its successor, socialist Yugoslavia, sought to integrate all South Slavic nations (except Bulgarians) into a single Yugoslav nation (hence the name, jug/yug standing for “south” in most Slavic languages), but at some point (maybe even at the very beginning), the process went in the totally opposite direction.

Belgrade, Serbia – Inside – Alex Blokstra

Fast forward 73 years and Yugoslavia was no more. At the point of dissolution, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia broke up into the following states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia, while Serbia and Montenegro stuck together for some more time and ultimately broke up in 2004. So, enter 3, exit 6, but that is not the end of it. Bosnia and Herzegovina, as such, is home to 3 constituent nations – Bosniaks, Serbs and Croatians. These three nations were also central to the (attempted) creation of the Yugoslavian nation – forming a tight ethno-linguistic cluster which was supposed to act as the fulcrum of the new state. The language known as Serbo-Croatian or Croatian-Serbian during the existence of Yugoslavia was also formed on the basis of the central segment of the South Slavic dialectal continuum. The language was meant to integrate the nation and promote bratstvo i jedinstvo (in English: brotherhood and unity, a popular slogan and a guiding principle of communist Yugoslavia’s ethnic policies). Macedonians and Slovenians were (and still are) located on the peripheries of this dialectal continuum, so we will leave them alone as I will be focusing on language here.

Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina –  Bascasija square – Greta Gabaglio

In the Balkans, it is not quite right to say that many extremes have aided the creation of rifts between the nations of the former Yugoslavia. However, polarization has been a driving and defining force throughout the history of this region. The public has been polarized by all sorts of important and not so important issues used to achieve various kinds of political goals. What’s more, polarization was needed precisely because we are all too similar. In order to promote themselves and create seemingly opposing national identities, our post-Yugoslavian political “elites” needed to emphasize the distinctive characters of our nations – or to create them where they had not existed already. The most notable difference between the nations currently making up the post-Yugoslavian region is manifested in people’s affiliation with three dominant faiths – Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christianity, and Islam. The first is practiced by the Serbs (and Montenegrins), the second by Croats, while Bosniaks practice Islam, a heritage of several centuries of Ottoman rule. Yet, in all three cases, religious affiliation is seen more as a defining national trait than a matter of faith. This is, again, due to a lack of other fundamental, inherent distinctions between us.

Perast, Montenegro – In the Bay of Kotor – Valentin Ivantsov

A prime example of polarization in the so-called “Western Balkans” region can be seen in language. Or languages, as some would prefer. From a purely linguistic point of view, the languages spoken in the former Yugoslavia include Serbo-Croatian and closely related, but not entirely similar, Macedonian and Slovene. That is what linguistics as an academic field says. For those not familiar with these languages – the differences between the dialects of Serbo-Croatian can be compared to those between the dialects of English, e.g. British, American or Australian English. Some minor differences in grammar and spelling, some variations in vocabulary, but nothing drastic. For instance, the difference between certain local dialects within the Serbian language is far greater than the difference between Serbian and any other variety of Serbo-Croatian. On the political level, however, the situation looks a bit different. After the dissolution of Yugoslavia, “brotherhood and unity” fell out of favor, and so did the name of the language as a vital part of the concept. Croatians decided to revert to calling their “half” of the language Croatian, Serbs logically stuck with Serbian, which left Bosniaks in an uncomfortable position, so they quickly came up with Bosnian. Linguistically speaking, all these are standardized varieties of a single dialect, and as such, they are entirely mutually intelligible. So what’s the big deal, you might ask? Well, this is where it gets interesting.

Osijek, Croatia – Light pillars – Dominik Lalic

In the vicious political arena of post-Yugoslavia, language has been used as a handy tool for solidifying the national identities based upon the opposing concepts of “Us” vs. “Them.” Language as a means of polarization is particularly convenient because you cannot change a nation’s culture or mentality overnight, and neither can you teach a nation to speak a whole new language by issuing a decree. However, what you can do is change the name of a language and declare it to be “totally different” than the one you want to distance yourself from. And that can yield truly absurd results. For instance, although Bosniaks, Croats and Serbs understand each other perfectly well, regardless of how they prefer to call their languages, that did not stop a certain Bosniak politician in Serbia from demanding a Serbian-Bosnian interpreter in a TV debate with a fellow Serb politician. The “trend” got an interesting twist when a bunch of quick-thinking folks in Sanjak or Raška – a region in Serbia inhabited by a Bosniak minority – realized they could use language to delay unwelcome legal proceedings by demanding that all paperwork be “translated” from Serbian into Bosnian. Or this – some Serbs, for instance, are likely to avoid using certain words or phrases just because they feel “too Croatian”; while the Croatian language, on the other hand, has borrowed considerably from other Slavic languages (in this case, the more unrelated, the better) in order to appear more distinct from Serbian. However, when Croatian lawmakers decided to force Croatian TV stations to translate all Serbian movies, the decision (and especially its outcome) was ridiculed by all except the most hard-core nationalists. The reason is simple – the end result was awkward and superfluous, only distracting the viewer and ruining the films’ artistic value and original flavor. Of course, the linguistic Balkanization does not end there. Today, half of Montenegrins consider themselves Montenegrin by ethnicity, the other half consider themselves part of the Serbian nation, regarding the name Montenegrin as merely a geographical determinant. To add to the confusion, part of those that see themselves as ethic Montenegrins claim Serbian as their native tongue, while only a minority has declared Montenegrin to be their native language. Which is not surprising, given that the language was “discovered” less than 10 years ago. Before that, everyone just spoke Serbian. But now, thanks to this cultural advance, it is not uncommon to have a Serbian speaking Serb, a Serbian speaking Montenegrin and a Montenegrin speaking Montenegrin within a single family, depending on each’s political preference! I hope I haven’t confused you beyond all hope because there is more to come.

Pirot, Serbia – Crossing – Dimitar Kazakov

Serbian is one of the few languages in the world that uses two types of script – Latin and Cyrillic. This feature is a remnant of the aforementioned Serbo-Croatian and attempted to achieve inter-ethnic equality, because the Orthodox part of Yugoslavia historically used Cyrillic, while the Catholic and Muslim part used Latin. Having been deprived of its only function, this concept has turned into another source of polarization, this time within the Serbian nation. One portion of the population prefers Cyrillic, considering Latin script “Croatian” (and thus unwelcome), while the rest prefer Latin, considering it more “cosmopolitan, modern, closer to the world,” contrary to Cyrillic, which is held to be “obsolete, nationalistic” and so on. Do we need both? Probably not, but we do need to have a bone to pick.

Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina – In-between – Pika Žvan

Polarization does not only occur on the national level – most of the people in the ex-Yugoslavian region will either tell you that “Yugoslavia was the best country in the whole world, we never lived better” or “Good riddance, it was a bloody dungeon” – irrespective of what country they currently live in. One will rarely hear a less emotional, middle ground point of view. You won’t meet many people who say “Yugoslavia or no Yugoslavia, why can’t we just act like normal people and realize that’s in our best interest?” It’s just not us, I guess. Being so hopelessly similar, we have no other option than to constantly accentuate the tiniest of differences and fabricate new ones in order to solidify our self-perception of “Us” vs. “Them.” Or at least, that is what our leaders keep telling us. But hey, divide et impera is not something I came up with while writing this, it’s been around a lot longer than that and as it turns out – it still works! Interestingly, though, once people remove themselves from the sources of polarization – which often happens when you move to another country in search of a better life (which a lot of us do) – you quickly realize we are not that different after all. Yugos that go abroad for work often stick to their (former) neighbors. Simply, they speak the same language, they largely share the same culture and mentality, and being alone in a foreign country makes you see what being different really means. And to the unbelievers, I will only say this – if we really spoke different languages, I am sure we would quarrel a lot less.

Aleksandar Protić

Credits

Snapshot 1: Zagreb, Croatia – Festival of light – Dominionart (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Belgrade, Serbia – Inside – Alex Blokstra (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina –  Bascasija square – Greta Gabaglio (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Perast, Montenegro – In the Bay of Kotor – Valentin Ivantsov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Osijek, Croatia – Light pillars – Dominik Lalic (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Pirot, Serbia – Crossing – Dimitar Kazakov (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina – In-between – Pika Žvan (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies. May 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization. April 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
CW 31 – Turkey – Seyit Ali Dastan
CW 32 – India – Sanjay Ray
CW 33 – Russia – Anastasiya Zakharova
CW 34 – Canada – Maha Husseini
CW 35 – Spain – Virginia Sanmartin Lopez
CW 38 – Turkey – Peren Cakir
CW 37 – Armenia – Hayk Antonyan
CW 38 – Italy – Sara Deiana
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed