By Seyit Ali Dastan

The doctor’s comments boosted my morale. Because this was not a disease that continuously deteriorates like dementia. He might not totally recover, but he would get better in time.

As soon as we got back home, I started to think about what I could do to stimulate my father’s memory. I needed to find places where we shared the past together. The first thought that came to mind was to return to the schools I had attended. Since he had also been a teacher, education had always held an important place for him. I knew he really liked to talk about the educational institutions in my past.

Early the next day, we left home to visit the primary school I had finished around twenty years ago. My father once said that he realized I had grown up when he left me alone in the school and watched me walk in the yard. Every time he mentioned it, I could see the emotion in his eyes. With this feeling, I drove my father’s car to the school. It was at the center of Kayseri, and its name was Ahmet Paşa İlkokulu, or Ahmet Paşa Primary School. When we arrived at the place of the school, I was shocked. There was no school building. It had totally disappeared. What I saw instead was a crowded parking garage where you feel the heat of the cars and smell the scent of the tires and old oil. I didn’t understand how this had happened because I clearly remembered the metal plate on the entry gate of the school documenting its establishment in 1865. It was probably the oldest school in Kayseri; now demolished and replaced by a garage.

“Why did we come here, son? Are you going to park the car?” he asked.

“Well… I was just…” – I could not explain it to my father. “No, we won’t park here. We were just passing by,” I replied, and, luckily, my father didn’t really know why we had come here.

I then drove the car to my second school, Küçükçalık Anadolu Lisesi, or Küçükçalık Anatolian Middle School, which was between primary school and high school. My father had frequently come here to talk with my teachers. To be honest, it was a period when I often skipped the lessons and just hung out with my friends. Once one of my friends joked, “Seyit, your father is at school more than you are.” My father was actually showing up at the school to discipline me. It was a period of conflict between an adolescent and adult.

We got out of the car when we arrived. But it was difficult to recognize the place after many years. The poplar trees that used to encircle the school no longer existed. They must have been cut due to the pollens they spread during May. It was a trendy idea recently: Poplar trees should be in rural areas and those in cities should be cut. They were completely wiped out from the cities in a decade. Without them, my school was basically a naked building, however. But it was not only the trees. A new road ran straight across the yard. A newer building behind the school had also reduced the size of the yard. While looking at the school with my father, I asked,

“Dad, do you remember the middle school I used to attend?” – He looked for a while and replied:

“No, not really!”

“Me neither,” I said.

Having failed to find something that could stimulate my father’s memory on the first day, we turned back home. I thought that it would be better to go the Kayseri Fen Lisesi, or Kayseri Science High School, which was a boarding school. My father and I had a lot of memories from there because he had taught physics for more than ten years at the school and we lived in the housing facilities allocated to school staff. Furthermore, I also spent two years there and we shared a lot of memories in each corner of the school.

Early in the morning, teeming with emotion, I drove to Kayseri Fen Lisesi. The school was quite far away from the city center of Kayseri – it took half an hour to reach. When we arrived, a guy stopped us at the outer gate and asked why we had come. I said my father used to be a physics teacher in the school and we had lived here. He apologized and said that it was no longer Kayseri Fen Lisesi; now it was Kayseri Spor Lisesi, or Kayseri Sports High School. He didn’t let us go inside. He also added that Kayseri Fen Lisesi had moved to a modern building in the city center. Since we had driven quite a ways, we at least got out and looked at the old school buildings silently. When we returned to the car, I took a final glimpse at the main building, and suddenly got the strange feeling that it was also watching us beyond the walls and gates.

I dedicated the following day to past sports events and places we had some collective memory of. We went directly to the open fields in the district where we used to live when I was a child. There were areas open to everybody, places where we spent time playing soccer, flying kites, and enjoying many other childhood games. My father was just like a friend I remembered very well: We had spent hours at events together. In comparison to yesterday, I had less hope that we would find the place the way we knew it.

So I was not surprised when we arrived: The soccer fields had been converted to artificial turf and covered by huge tents. Of course, it was no longer free to play soccer, as these facilities were for-profit businesses. People were waiting outside the tents and watching the matches.

“Dad, do you remember when we played in here?”

“Maybe… I remember a bit…”

“This place was completely covered by grass. It was not a regular park, of course. We played games… Mainly soccer… There were no normal goal posts. We used big stones to mark the endpoints of the goal. And there weren’t any boundary lines. It was all in our imagination… No need to wait… Because there was enough space for everybody.”

“And the ground was not nearly as clear of small stones or pebbles… there were even cattle droppings.” We laughed. – The area was occasionally used for feeding cows, probably because of some small backyard stables nearby.

“In the late afternoon, there could be more than a hundred people in the meadow. Fathers, sons, daughters… We were all in there. If it was kite season, like May or September, you could see close to a hundred kites swirling above.”

“I remember, son; our kite was usually one of the highest.”

“Exactly, dad, it was far above the others; and once the string ripped and we had to run after it, street by street.”

Our conversation continued for half an hour. Although I could not completely lift the veil on my father’s memory of the place and period we spent together, he recalled some of what I was describing. Having seen the traces of memory in my father’s mind, I drove the car straight to the city’s sports center where the stadium and basketball fields are located.

After all, I was not very surprised to see that the city’s main sports facilities had disappeared entirely. They were right at the center of Kayseri and had a beautiful location that residents could reach. I had wanted to remind my father of the matches occasionally played at Kayseri Sports Club. The long lines we had at the gates, the sunflower seeds we ate – an exclusively Turkish snack habit –, the chants we shouted together, the regrets after defeat and the joy we shared after victories, the road we walked while going there… All had been left behind…

What I saw was a quite ugly hotel and shopping mall adjacent to it.

I googled the new place for the stadium. It was far away from the city center. As I check the search engine hits, I saw the mayor’s comment: “Not a single lira paid by us for the construction of the new stadium.” But he didn’t mention what happened to public space at the heart of the city and in turn why this place was allocated to new business owners.

“Why did we come here, son,” my father asked.

After taking a deep breath to gain time, I replied, “Mom has some orders; we need to go into the mall.” Luckily, he didn’t resist, and we did some shopping inside.

(Part 3 to follow on January 25…)

In the Middle – An International Transposition (Fiction)

Introduction to In the Middle – An International Transposition, edited by Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey

January: Forgetting – Turkey, by Seyit Ali Dastan

February: The Unreal in Real – Armenia, by Armine Asyran

March: Catching Water – Argentina, by Javier Gómez

April: Unwanted – South Africa, by Sarah Leah Pimentel

May: House with a Stucco Ship – Ukraine, by Gennady Bondarenko

June: A Girl Pedaling up the Road of Life – Cuba, by Marilin Guerrero Casas

July: The Last Day – Poland, by Pawel Awdejuk

August: Through my Hands – Venezuela, by Veronica Cordido

September: Amelia’s Euphemism – Spain, by Jonay Quintero Hernández

October: Until Love Do Us Part – Uruguay, by Alejandra Baccino

November: A Journey to the Edge – Lebanon, by Rayan Harake

December: I Used to Smoke – Russia, by Kate Korneeva

Background – Context

Peripatetic Alterity: A Philosophical Treatise on the Spectrum of Being – Romantics and Pragmatists by Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2019)

La Syncrétion of Polarization and Extremes Transposée, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2019)

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2018)

L’anthologie of Global Instability Transpuesta, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2017)

From Wahnsinnig to the Loony Bin: German and Russian Stories Transposed to Modern-day America, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2013)

More by Seyit Ali Dastan

Uncertain Waters – Short story

Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Short story

Living in the Pendulum between Turkey and Syria – Short story

More on Turkey

Perception by country – Transposing emblems, articles, short stories and reports from Turkey and other countries

Credits

Cover photo of Kayseri, Turkey by Attraction Art

Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

By Seyit Ali Dastan

He was walking down the asphalt-paved street to our home. I was waiting on the side, following his slow steps with my eyes. Just like any other summer day, he wore a blue T-shirt. He seemed so carefree and calm that I envied him for a second. We had celebrated his 65th birthday six months ago. But as he got closer to me, he seemed younger than I recalled. This was the first change that I noticed. My impression was that his facial expression had become smoother. He recognized me only when he was quite close. When he saw me, he became very pleasant; we hugged each other as if we were two friends. He was my father Mehmet and had recently had a brain hemorrhage that had wiped out some of his memory.

I went to see my father two weeks after what had happened to him – because my mother didn’t let me know initially. Only after he was discharged from the hospital and started a new life did my mother call and explain the situation. She said that there was nothing to do at the time – it was all medical staff. The doctor said my father would recover but needed some help. “You should talk to the doctor,” she said.

We scheduled a visit the day I arrived at my parents’ home in Kayseri, a major city in central Turkey. But that evening I tried to understand how extensive the problem was by sort of interrogating him.

“Dad, do you know what happened to you?” I asked.

“Not really, your mother says that there is bleeding in my brain. This caused me to disremember some things,” he replied.

I viewed the answer positively because, if at least he knew he would be able to remember things, that would help him regain his memory. I then asked about some events from our family’s past.

“Do you remember my sister’s wedding?”

“I know she is married, but I don’t exactly know for how long.”

“Do you remember her husband’s or my wife’s name?”

“No,” he said, “But I could recognize them if I saw them on the street.”

The interrogation continued all evening. I realized that he had largely forgotten what had happened in the last 4-5 years. He had almost completely forgotten politics, which he had really liked to follow. The sad events, like my uncles’ death two years ago, had also been lost. He thought that my uncle was alive. Having comprehended the extent of the damage, I asked:

“Do you know where I am working now?”

“You are working in Ankara as a government official.”

The answer led to a moment of silence in the room. I was not sure what to say. Then my mother intervened: “Mehmet! Seyit lost his job after the coup two years ago. The government issued decrees and removed more than a hundred thousand people from their jobs.”

I was not sure whether to say this to my father so directly and tried to stop my mother. But she continued:

“Don’t worry son; your father has also forgotten how to be sad. He doesn’t care about it.”

Indeed, my father did not seem affected by this information. I recalled how he had been glum and anxious when he first heard that I had been ousted after years of service. Now he was completely indifferent.

We continued talking about what I was doing and how I was earning a living. At the end of the night, when I went to bed, I realized that my father had really forgotten what it means to be sad. This was the most upsetting part because if you cannot be sad, that means it is not possible to be happy either. Forgetting cannot be or should not be the cure for anything, I thought.

We woke up early the following day and went to the clinic where the initial procedures had been performed. My father and I visited the doctor who knew his story. The doctor said:

“Mehmet Hocam will get better in time.” – I understood that he knew my father was a teacher, and called him Hocam accordingly. – “The bleeding stroke was in the memory part of his brain. As the bleeding stops, he will recover. But we can’t guarantee the extent of his recovery. When they brought him to the hospital, he couldn’t even remember his wife’s name. As I see now, he has improved greatly in just two weeks.”

“Is there anything we can do to help with this process,” I asked.

“The recovery depends on mental activity. I suggest you encourage him to use his brain. He can solve some puzzles and visit some places you already know. Just try to stimulate his memory by reminding him of past events and venues. But don’t push him and don’t try to teach the past to him.”

(Part 2 to follow on January 18…)

In the Middle – An International Transposition (Fiction)

Introduction to In the Middle – An International Transposition, edited by Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey

January: Forgetting – Turkey, by Seyit Ali Dastan

February: The Unreal in Real – Armenia, by Armine Asyran

March: Catching Water – Argentina, by Javier Gómez

April: Unwanted – South Africa, by Sarah Leah Pimentel

May: House with a Stucco Ship – Ukraine, by Gennady Bondarenko

June: A Girl Pedaling up the Road of Life – Cuba, by Marilin Guerrero Casas

July: The Last Day – Poland, by Pawel Awdejuk

August: Through my Hands – Venezuela, by Veronica Cordido

September: Amelia’s Euphemism – Spain, by Jonay Quintero Hernández

October: Until Love Do Us Part – Uruguay, by Alejandra Baccino

November: A Journey to the Edge – Lebanon, by Rayan Harake

December: I Used to Smoke – Russia, by Kate Korneeva

Background – Context

Peripatetic Alterity: A Philosophical Treatise on the Spectrum of Being – Romantics and Pragmatists by Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2019)

La Syncrétion of Polarization and Extremes Transposée, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2019)

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2018)

L’anthologie of Global Instability Transpuesta, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2017)

From Wahnsinnig to the Loony Bin: German and Russian Stories Transposed to Modern-day America, (eds.) Angelika Friedrich, Yuri Smirnov and Henry Whittlesey (2013)

More by Seyit Ali Dastan

Uncertain Waters – Short story

Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Short story

Living in the Pendulum between Turkey and Syria – Short story

More on Turkey

Perception by country – Transposing emblems, articles, short stories and reports from Turkey and other countries

Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Over the last three years we have collected texts by international authors on a range of topics that define our time.

In 2017, the topic was instability; during 2018 we looked at uncertainty; and throughout 2019 we published essays, documentaries and short (in part) fictional stories on polarization and extremes.

As regular readers or participants in the perypatetik community know, the international writers come from every part of the globe: from South Africa to America, from Argentina to Mongolia. For the most part, they are also non-native speakers of English, although generally work with the language as translators or in other creative capacities.

Besides learning about the international nature of modern-day phenomena, we have also witnessed a type of transposition.

In literature, transposition involves retaining the form of an original work (usually each sentence) and altering the content on the basis of the change in context. For example, a story by Jane Austen in eighteenth century England is transposed to America today by retaining (fundamentally) all of the sentences, but shifting the content so that it is consistent with our contemporary environment: Rather then travelling to London by horse and buggy, the characters will drive or fly.

The transposition of instability, uncertainty, polarization and extremes was similar. The topic itself (instability, uncertainty, etc.) assumed the place of the independent variable “form,” while the content varied from context to context.

Now we will begin with a literary transposition set entirely in the present-day world. This international transposition will initially consist of independent, unrelated stories similar to what you can find in various other publications (albeit written by non-native speakers in our case). These core stories will then be effectively serialized, with future parts containing parallels across narratives. For example, it is likely that each fictional piece will continue in 2021 with a derivative centering on or involving childhood. As such, each story currently isolated will become a transposition in 2021 when they all depict, examine, reflect… on childhood in their respective countries. Although not yet conclusively determined, this will continue in 2022 with a text involving the same characters as in the first two years, but in relation to some plot involving e.g. relationships or suffering or, perhaps, simply the next stage of life after childhood.

To start, however, we will experience these authors’ views of life in their respective countries. More of their work can be found at our website http://www.perypatetik.net, where their contributions, along with others, have shaped our understanding of the contemporary, neobaroque age.

Provisionally collected under the title of !¡! In the Middle !¡!, these stories will appear in weekly installments like the transposing emblems in recent years, but with one author featured each month.

Here is what’s ahead:

January: Forgetting – Turkey, by Seyit Ali Dastan
February: The Unreal in Real – Armenia, by Armine Asyran
March: Catching Water – Argentina, by Javier Gómez
April: Unwanted – South Africa, by Sarah Leah Pimentel
May: House with a Stucco Ship – Ukraine, by Gennady Bondarenko
June: A Girl Pedaling up the Road of Life – Cuba, by Marilin Guerrero Casas
July: The Last Day – Poland, by Pawel Awdejuk
August: Through my Hands – Venezuela, by Veronica Cordido
September: Amelia’s Euphemism – Spain, by Jonay Quintero Hernández
October: Until Love Do Us Part – Uruguay, by Alejandra Baccino
November: A Journey to the Edge – Lebanon, by Rayan Harake
December: I Used to Smoke – Russia, by Kate Korneeva
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Ana Boričić

Introducing Montenegro to someone who has never heard about this small country is always challenging and interesting in so many ways. Everything from the nature and culture to its religion and national structure make Montenegro a land of many extremes. A quick glance at demographic facts on Montenegro shows how everyday life is naturally shaped by many differences and great diversity:

• Its population of a little more than 620,0001 citizens is comparable to a city or part of a metropolis in most countries.
• In one day you can go sea diving and be at top of one of the highest mountains (Bobotov kuk, with an elevation of 2,522 m2).
• The territory of Montenegro covers 13,4503 square kilometers and makes it the 41st4 smallest country in the world.
• There are two alphabets, used as equal, Cyrillic and Latin, and five native languages in official use, with none of them being English.

Kotor, Montenegro – The Bay of Kotor – TMP – An Instant of Time

Being Montenegrin means enjoying a mostly “sunny” life within the borders of national, religious, economic and political differences. Talking about Montenegro lifestyle is difficult because it depends where exactly you find yourself in the country. Despite its small size, the south and north of Montenegro are very distinct when it comes to the lifestyle a person has in these areas.

Budva, Montenegro – Old town – F8 studio

If we start with economic factors indicating the quality of life, there is a big difference in terms of how the economic situation in these areas is developing. The southern belt of Montenegro is attractive to tourists for its wild beauty and for foreign investors because of its economic potential. Although the history of all of Montenegro is very unusual in terms of the number of governments in this Balkan region, the southern part of Montenegro had its own peculiarity and authenticity also in periods when Montenegro did not have its independence, but was part of other state structures (in recent history: the Republic of Serbia and Montenegro, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, etc). Legacies of the cultural heritage (Illyrians, Byzantines, Venetians, Austrians, French, etc.)5 are still present and stunning. Combine that with beautiful nature and this part of Montenegro can be considered unique. Due to the increasing amount of foreign direct investment, the development of infrastructure, as well as many years of priority investments and reliance on “sea” tourism, this part of Montenegro is steadily developing and expanding, sometimes even damaging natural beauty and its resources.

Przno, Montenegro – Vacation – Alexey Oblov

When it comes to the economic aspect of life on the coast, the growing numbers of foreign tourists, investments, as well as the opening of the economy to new international companies has caused this region to be characterized by economic stability. The abundance of sunny days, its proximity to the central (economic) area of Montenegro, good infrastructure and higher salaries are some of the benefits of living by the seaside. Although the tourists during the summer months cause a certain amount of hectic, traffic jams, impede day-to-day obligations, and increase retail prices, these are the costs of generating revenue during the summer, which in many cases is enough for a stable life for the rest of the year. The average resident of Budva, one of the most famous coastal cities in Montenegro, has a very moderate, peaceful life (due to less cultural, social and other urban activity) during the winter, but usually has at least one property/room for rent, which generates substantial passive income.

Perast, Montenegro – Locals relaxing – Danil Voronin

Moving along the road to Podgorica, the capital, and further north, we find that the economy, society and nature differ substantially from the south. Although the northern belt of Montenegro covers more than half of the total territory, the sporadically settled area and poor infrastructure make it inaccessible and therefore less favorable for daily life. Although the beautiful nature is very diverse, and the area has many natural resources, which are also suitable for economic exploitation, the region is underutilized and has suffered from insufficient development. Low salaries, closed factories, few start-ups (despite tax breaks) in this economically backward region have driven young people to migrate to the central and southern part of Montenegro. Although a large percentage of the inhabitants work in agriculture and animal husbandry, these industries are usually at the level of meeting personal needs and are not aimed at further market exploitation. The north of Montenegro holds untouched beauty, diverse in nature, with beautiful scenery, deep canyons, vast pastures, fast rivers, mountainous plateaus and, as such, it is very suitable for developing tourism. The tourism potential of the northern region is steadily being realized, but this has not stopped the exodus of people from this part of Montenegro.

Dobrota, Montenegro – Fishing – Karina Bostanika

The north is becoming more and more empty, with net migration in the period from 2003 to 2011 being minus 17,1616 inhabitants, which is a very significant figure for such a small country. If you live in Mojkovac, a town in the north with 8,622 residents,7 you do not have the opportunity to go to the cinema to watch a movie, enroll in college, play water polo, etc. The only option would be to go to the closest urban town, which is about two and a half hours away. When we consider this distance, it is clear why a certain person would not choose to lead a peaceful life in the north and prefer the central part of Montenegro. The great diversity of the north, the extensive inaccessible rural areas as well as the wild nature make it difficult for the inhabitants to connect. This is unlike the south, which, due to the warmer climate, has “lighter” main roads and is better connected and therefore more visited, culturally richer, more economically stable and connected to the rest of the world by an airport.

Kotor, Montenegro – Climbing together – Karina Bostanika

Not only are there significant differences in the natural beauty of the two landscapes, views of life and opportunities, but the mentality of the inhabitants in these opposite regions also diverges, starting with their cultural heritage and extending to the historical background and past in different state structures. Montenegro’s geographical position places it between the East and West: The collision of different cultures, nations, as well as religions, is not alien to these regions, and it is therefore difficult to generally define the mentality of a particular region since both have a heterogeneous structure, which, in my personal opinion, enriches every aspect of life in such a small country.

Žabljak, Montenegro – Here and there – Maurice Lesca

Despite these differences, all citizens of Montenegro share similar hopes. They would like a highway to connect all the regions of the country. This would mean connecting the north and the central part, and therefore the south of Montenegro, so a higher percentage of young people would stay in their hometowns and a richer social life would be achieved in every sense. The idyllic dream is to connect the sea with the mountains, the sunshine with the snow, the shoreline with the pasture. In this dream, Montenegro becomes a place where, regardless of our birth, cultural heritage or social environment, we have, we will be able to enjoy, the same opportunities and a somewhat harmonious lifestyle.

Ana Boričić

Works cited:

1. https://www.destatis.de/Europa/EN/Country/Candidate-countries/Montenegro.html
2. https://www.summitpost.org/bobotov-kuk/152989
3. https://www.destatis.de/Europa/EN/Country/Candidate-countries/Montenegro.html
4. https://www.countries-ofthe-world.com/smallest-countries.html
5. https://me.visit-montenegro.com/main-cities/kotor/kotor-history/
6. Strategija regionalnog razvoja Crne Gore za period 2014-2020. godina – nacrt, Ministarstvo ekonomije, Crna Gora, maj 2014
7. http://www.mojkovac.me/o-gradu/stanovnitvo

Credits

Snapshot 1: Budva, Montenegro – The transparent sea – Naeblys (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Kotor, Montenegro – The Bay of Kotor – TMP – An Instant of Time (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Budva, Montenegro – Old town – F8 studio (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Przno, Montenegro – Vacation – Alexey Oblov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Perast, Montenegro – Locals relaxing – Danil Voronin (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Dobrota, Montenegro – Fishing – Karina Bostanika (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Kotor, Montenegro – Climbing together – Karina Bostanika (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Žabljak, Montenegro – Here and there – Maurice Lesca (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Corzo, Martha. The Struggle for the Working Class. December 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Molnar, Zoltan. Are You Willing To Be the Judge? – Hungary. December 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Stotts, Talia. A Polarization of Family Values – America. November 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Uusitalo, Kristin. There’s No Justice, Just Us – Philippines. December 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Zoltan Molnar

It did not surprise me when she turned away on the subway. Once we were friends or at least I thought so. Now many of them have turned their backs on me. She bent over her child in the stroller and kept ignoring me, although I was just a few seats away and we saw each other. I no longer had the motivation to stand up and explain the truth. Peace had already descended on me. I followed the easy steps to calm down: breathe in, breathe out. Friends are friends only until they start judging you – I told myself.

Hungary – Lake Balaton – Paulo Ferreira

There is a path in life to be followed, according to society. We finish our studies somewhere between the ages of 18 and 24; we start working and piling up money; we try out different professions and different relationships. Around the age of 30 women get annoyed by the question of when they will finally find the father of their future children. If you are a man, your father and uncles start joking about self-sacrificing wives or their opposite, feminists, then promote the institution of marriage even if they are unhappy with the constraints of it, for example, shared finances or staying together only for the sake of the kids.

Budapest, Hungary – Liberty Bridge – Daniel Olah

So by the time we are 33, we ticked all the needed boxes on the imaginary list:

A degree – check
A high-paying job with a year-end bonus and allowances that make friends jealous – check
An apartment or house bought with a mortgage – check
A partner whom we plan to stay with forever – check
And 1, 2, 3 children.

We are ready for a happy life. Now we are the stars among our friends; many say how lucky we are to have finally found the right partner, a stable job, and how happy our family life is. Our partnership becomes more envied once offspring populate the home.

Gyor, Hungary – On Baross Gabor street – Dante Visual

Mothers usually change their circle of friends to those who are mothers themselves. The topics to discuss will change immediately as well: what was the first/second birth like, what does the newborn eat, how do the kids sleep, and oh, whose baby is cuter.

Fathers will not distance themselves from old friends so abruptly. There is no competition among men regarding family as there is among women.

Probably outsiders who do not have a similar relationship and lifestyle to ours will drop out by themselves within a few months after the first child. Are they jealous? Sad about their status in the competition of “maturity”? Or do people change in personality as they start taking care of their children?

Budapest, Hungary – Food festival – Stanislav Rabunski

Let’s jump a few years ahead.

The star parents are 35, the daughter is 4 and the boy has just started walking. Dad has succeeded at work and been promoted. Mom is thinking about looking for a part-time job because she needs some more company and a change of environment from constantly being at home.

There are garden parties every month; some old friends have reached the maturity level to be able to spend time with us again. We smile, you smile, we like you, you like us. This is a textbook case of a happy life, right? Facebook is the place where we can find millions of happy family pictures. As if there were no bad days or anxiety in the background. Many use social media to present themselves as stars. The best mother. The cutest baby, etc.

Szeged, Hungary – After the rain – Dante Visual

And then, the mother calls her best friend at nine in the evening. She is sobbing uncontrollably; her words can hardly be understood. It turns out the father left her and the kids.

What would a best friend do in such a case? Provide a shoulder to cry on, lend an ear to her. In the first instance everyone would comfort the forsaken one, right? Most of us stand on the side of the person left behind (regardless of their gender) and urge friends to accompany the victim in the crusade against the violator of the peace within the family.

But, there are questions looming in the background. What happened? What led to the breakup of the ‘holy’ family? What measures were taken to avoid the fall? Can the separation be blamed on only one person? Do we have to agree with everything the mother slanders the ‘traitor’ with? These questions are forgotten as soon as we let our minds be overrun by our emotions: “If the trophy mom has just been left, it might happen to us soon as well! We must support her!” Most people would follow such a line of thought instinctively. Fear influences and rules our daily lives.

Hungary – Above from below – Szabina Gerencser

Friends of the mother only hear her story and are not interested in the father’s version. It is very rare that we confront those close to us by explaining that there are two sides to the same coin. And it is fairly uncommon for friends to learn the story from both sides. It is highly questionable whether people have enough information to know the factual reasons for the breakup.

When a family falls apart, all the members need to adjust their lives. Friends take sides or they don’t, and just gradually disappear.

We, the outsiders… do we have the right to judge? Do we want to judge? Are we sure that if the same thing happened to us in the future, we would still be thinking the same way? Or are we only quick to give an opinion because it does not affect us personally… yet?

Before we take sides next time, let’s have a moment of silence and think the situation over. In all likelihood, the best thing to do is simply to listen. Our remarks would just confuse our friend who has enough thoughts to deal with.

Hungary – Cranes – Zdeněk Macháček

I sat there and buried my head in the newspapers till we reached my stop. I stood up and nodded her way, wished her all the best in my mind. Wishing bad luck to others is not my style, everyone has highs and lows. I just would like people to not be so judgmental. Life is a complex matter. There is no such thing as good or bad. It’s all based on our values. We all try to live the best we can imagine in a given situation. And we cannot entirely understand the reasons or the motives of another person. Everyone has their own unique background, with different motivations, set of emotions and triggers.

Zoltan Molnar

Credits

Snapshot 1: Budapest, Hungary – Hortobágy, Maďarsko – Zdeněk Macháček (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Hungary – Lake Balaton – Paulo Ferreira (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Budapest, Hungary – Liberty Bridge – Daniel Olah (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Gyor, Hungary – On Baross Gabor street – Dante Visual (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Budapest, Hungary – Food festival – Stanislav Rabunski (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Szeged, Hungary – After the rain – Dante Visual (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Hungary – Above from below – Szabina Gerencser (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: Hungary – Cranes – Zdeněk Macháček (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Nathan Jackson

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Corzo, Martha. The Struggle for the Working Class. December 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Stotts, Talia. A Polarization of Family Values – America. November 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Uusitalo, Kristin. There’s No Justice, Just Us – Philippines. December 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 52 – Montenegro – Ana Boricic
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Martha Corzo

One of the greatest extremes in Peru can be found in people’s standard of living.

We can arrive at this conclusion if we consider that many families in Lima, especially the immigrants from the highlands, live on an average of 1,000 soles (or less) a month (equivalent to less than $300), while, by contrast, there are also many families who spend that sum on a ticket for entertainment or other things as insignificant as that.

Arequipa, Peru – In the sun – Yasemin Olgunoz Berber

Here in Lima, when the rich neighborhoods had already been established, the poor people in the city and the new arrivals from the highlands built huts around them, moving onto land that already had owners. Frequently, these people were cheated by someone who was not the owner and sold them the land with false property titles, but, nonetheless, something like a belt was formed by these settlements. The homes themselves were very modest, generally shacks with dirt floors covered by mats, which is all you need since it does not rain in Lima.

These settlers had left their villages in the provinces, in some cases because of the poverty and in others to escape terrorism. At the beginning, these suburbs were called “barriadas” (shanty towns) and now we call them “pueblos jóvenes” (young towns). Although most of them are quite similar one stands out. It is called “Villa El Salvador.” The difference is that it did not develop in the form of an invasion, but was planned by a former president who wanted to give land to the poor. And, indeed, it has progressed greatly since its establishment and become a district. An industrial park has been built there, along with a housing resort, lawns and recreational areas. It is named the “Villa Panamericana” and was intended to host the athletes of the “Panamericano” (Pan-American games) that were held in Lima during July and August. And now, after the games, these facilities are used by the residents in this area.

Iquitos, Peru – On the road – Karol Moraes

In Lima there are tremendous extremes in two more areas: health and education. The people living in the “pueblos jóvenes” receive very poor healthcare, and most of them do not have access to good schools for their children, although many work very hard in the hope of seeing their children obtain a university degree.

In terms of healthcare, we can say that here the patient care for the poor is very bad. If a poor person needs help, the date of the appointment that is given to them is so far in the future that most of the time, when the day arrives, this patient has already recovered or has died. Besides, very frequently, hospital personnel is on strike due to their low salaries or, at other times, there is a lack of material in those institutions, and, on these occasions, the patients are denied care. In addition to the hospitals, there are also free medical clinics, but it is very difficult to receive care there because they are generally crowded. In some cases, there have even been situations where two women who were going to give birth had to share a bed. And if someone succeeds in receiving care, the cost of medicine in the pharmacy is so high that they cannot buy it. And very little of the medicine prescribed is sold in these pharmacies. Most of the time, a relative must go to one that is strategically placed very close to these medical centers and pay a more expensive price than normal to get the medicine.

Lima, Peru – Urbano – Karol Moraes

In the past, there were two hospitals for workers, the “Hospital del Empleado” (Employee Hospital) and the “Hospital Obrero” (Workers’ Hospital), and care was good in both, although the former was a little better due to its higher resources. Then the government had the two hospitals merged, and care declined in the former because it had to share its resources with the latter.

However, the treatment there still remained acceptable. But a few years ago, a president “populista” (populist) stipulated that all the poor people of Lima should receive medical services there, no matter whether they worked or not or if they paid or not. Naturally, the number of people to be treated exceeded their capacity, so the quality of care fell.

Cusco, Peru – The Incas lifestyle – Karol Moraes

The health care offered in Lima’s private clinics to people with economic resources differs greatly from the kind offered to the poor in the health centers. We have already seen how health care is offered (or denied) to the poor in our capital. By contrast, the people who can pay what is asked or who have health insurance can go to one of the various private clinics in Lima when an emergency occurs and receive at least satisfactory treatment.

If we talk about education, there are also extremes in this area. The upper classes receive an acceptable education, but the poor do not. This gap has been narrowing in some cases over the last few decades due to access to the internet. Parents and children of modest means may use it in the special “cabinas” (cabins) created for that purpose here and in the suburbs by paying a little money.

Arequipa, Peru – Conversing – Yasemin Olgunoz Berber

But poor people are often cheated by bad universities whose titles do not help them get a job. However, we can say that 10% or 20% of young people with a few resources manage to join the professional working class. Here too, globalization is making a difference, as now it is easier to study for a career or even obtain a graduate degree, virtually, or at least with classroom time only on weekends.

But the most extremes situation is found in the income earned by workers.

In Lima, Peru, many women are home workers. Most of them come from the villages to the capital in search of a better life, but few really get it because most of the time their salaries are too low.

Machu Picchu, Peru – Can you imagine it? – Aleksandar Todorovic

Another group of workers whose income is extraordinarily low in Lima can be seen in the “wachimanes” (security guards). At present there are thousands of these employees here. Almost every great house must have one of them guarding the door. Most buildings have one, and, in the neighborhoods where the people are not so wealthy, they have one for each block. The reason is the increase in crime. In the beginning most of the men handling this task were soldiers of the Peruvian army, but now anybody, even people without formal training, may work as one.

In the apartments of buildings where middle age couples live, there is often a surplus of food, which is given to the wachimanes, who also receive electric appliances that are no longer used. If they are bachelors, as they frequently are, that is enough to solve their more urgent problems since, being well fed, their health is generally good.

Iquitos, Peru – Tuk tuk transportation – Karol Moraes

Nonetheless, young professionals can earn a higher income if they know how to do construction work or make home repairs. The problem with these workers is that, even when they are skilled, as they generally are, construction workers are often paid the minimum wage and are unhappy because they have other expectations. Yet, they continue working due to the lack of other opportunities to get a better job and because they do not want to risk what they have, since at least it gives them a certain security, although it does not secure their future.

To close, it should be repeated that extremes are widespread in Peru. We find them in health care, education and, above all, income. It continues to be extremely difficult for the uneducated and educated working class to make a decent living. Nonetheless, we still hope for an improvement.

Martha Corzo

Credits

Snapshot 1: Paracas, Peru – Concealed – caioacquesta (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 2: Arequipa, Peru – In the sun – Yasemin Olgunoz Berber (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Iquitos, Peru – On the road – Karol Moraes (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Lima, Peru – Urbano – Karol Moraes (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Cusco, Peru – The Incas lifestyle – Karol Moraes (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Arequipa, Peru – Conversing – Yasemin Olgunoz Berber (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Machu Picchu, Peru – Can you imagine it? – Aleksandar Todorovic (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 8: Iquitos, Peru – Tuk tuk transportation – Karol Moraes (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Stotts, Talia. A Polarization of Family Values – America. November 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Uusitalo, Kristin. There’s No Justice, Just Us – Philippines. December 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Montenegro – Ana Boricic
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Kristin Uusitalo

The Philippines is an exquisite place, filled with natural wonders and beautiful cities. It is considered to be a one of the leading tourist destinations. When people travel, they see the positives, but what of the negatives? What lies beneath the beauty of the country? The Philippines have seven thousand one hundred and seven islands with over one hundred and forty distinct languages. When you move from one area to another, people will look, sound and act differently. However, the islands and cultures are not what divide the country. The main division is due to wealth and the power it affords.

Boracay, Philippines – Hang out – richardernestya

I did not have the best childhood. I was not part of the wealthy groups. This allowed me to see things in a different light. My mom and I rented a home all our life, allowing me to experience people from all walks of life. Growing up in an area with people of limited financial means, I shared the same lot as my neighbors. I love those people, my friends. When I asked them about their dreams, it was not about going to college. Their dreams were to leave the country and make a better life for themselves. People, who don’t know the struggle say, get a job and work for college. I do not see how that is possible when the rent itself is the same amount as your minimum wage paycheck. I have met extremely intelligent people who would put graduates to shame, but could not afford to go to college. No school loans, no welfare; it’s just passion and ambition. A burning desire for success, but when push comes to shove, that friction turns to fire.

Manila, Philippines – Shopping in the slums – Yulia Bogomolova

There are no social classes such as lower middle class and upper middle class. There are only the rich and the poor. The rich get richer and the poor stay that way. The most viable options for generating income are dominated by the wealthy and fueled by the blood, sweat and tears of the needy. When you see beautiful houses, when you stroll through the city and suburbs, you do not see the dirty and infested areas on the outskirts where crime thrives. Most people have no driver’s licenses because most people have never driven a car. A country where most will never be able to afford a plane ticket and the budget is most likely only going to cover one month. Parents see their children grow up without anything. Some parents accept their children will be like them, while others take the initiative to strive for their children’s future, whether it is legal or in some cases even illegal. It is a place where the minorities are the majority.

Boracay, Philippines – On the street – richardernestyap

I grew up in a place where drugs and guns were just a thirty minute walk away from where I lived. Drunk people in the middle of the street was normal, and alcohol the only pastime that people had. No crazy vacations, no hiking and other activities. Alcohol, drugs and work – these seem to be the usual suspects, day in and day out. I learned not to judge people based on the choices they made because I did not know about the choices they had. People who got caught with drugs were shot or thrown into a hole. The rich got their drugs delivered, and if you were caught, it was necessary to issue a public apology and you got a slap on the wrist. A poor man caught with a murderer gets a life time in jail while the rich walk free after four years and probation. As they say, there’s no justice, it’s just us.

The wealthy buy all the available land and sell it for a profit. The people who have lived there all their lives are being priced out of their homes.

Manila, Philippines – Slums – Yulia Bogomolova

The rich run everything political which makes them all obscenely richer. School kids run around town looking for trouble, and adults prowl the nights for their extracurricular criminal activities. I have been a victim of these predators. I was angry when it happened, but over time I understood that they have done that for survival. I understood that nobody ever wants to risk their life by engaging in crime, but what other choices are there? People say that money is the root of all evil. They are wrong. Lack of money is the root of all evil. Money has been used for good since the beginning of it all. Ways to make that money? That’s a different story all together.

To put things in perspective, the minimum wage ranges from USD 140 to 220 a month. Does that sound good? Okay, now make that last for 30 days. Imagine that you have a family. In some ways, the conditions are a good; other countries have it worse. Nonetheless, it pains me to see a father working hard only to grow old without anything to show for it.

Antipolo City, Philippines – The street vendor – junpinzon

In terms of employment, most people do not enjoy any benefits. The big companies make contracts extremely short to avoid providing any benefits you can gain with long-term employment. People accept this because there are no other choices. It is a survival tactic that is used to ride out short-term problems. They will never have any health care benefits, any type of pension plan or any type of workers’ compensation if hurt.

Imagine a young teenager whose dream for the future is to leave their home, to help their family. A young child, who wants to journey into the abyss to see if there is any light to be found. To risk everything they have, just to have the chance to see a different future. Everyone knows it, young or old. There are slim chances of success in our country. Statistics say that there are four million Filipinos in America alone. What does that tell you? Well, I know what it tells me.

Antipolo City, Philippines – At work – junpinzon

I love the country, despite its poverty-stricken streets; most of the people are genuine. There is a lot of crime and cruelty, but the people are why I will choose to grow old there. I am one of the people that went abroad, everything’s going well. It took me about 5 years to scrounge up a respectable amount to leave the country for work. I still have plans to go back but not anytime soon. I have a lot of regrets in my past, one of them was not going abroad younger, but the future is brighter than it has ever been for me. There a lot of good wealthy people but it is difficult to build up, and easy to destroy. The people making a difference are the rich. Their influence makes it easier for them, whether that be for good or otherwise, although money is power, and power corrupts. I believe the pieces are there, but there are few people who want to put them together. United we can put the puzzle together and strive for a better future.

Kristin Uusitalo

Credits

Snapshot 1: Manila, Philippines – Drops – Eugenio Pastoral (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Boracay, Philippines – Hang out – richardernestyap (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Manila, Philippines – Shopping in the slums – Yulia Bogomolova (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Boracay, Philippines – On the street – richardernestyap (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Manila, Philippines – Slums – Yulia Bogomolova (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Antipolo City, Philippines – The street vendor – junpinzon (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Antipolo City, Philippines – At work – junpinzon (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Esmonde Cole

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Stotts, Talia. A Polarization of Family Values – America. November 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Talia Stotts

If you were to travel back in time to the mid-20th century, you would notice a lot of key differences from the way life is lived today. You might note the lack of cellphones and computers; you might be surprised by the number of newspapers being read and friendly conversations in the streets. You might notice a distinctly segregated way of life with regards to race. Or it might even just be the clothes people wear that give you the most pause.

Whatever you might notice, the 1950s were very different from where we are currently in 2019. Even so, those years of long ago are still heralded as the “good old days” for whatever nostalgic reason people may find. However, it is the expectation of the family dynamic of those times that causes some of the greatest polarization among citizens in America today.

New York, America – Headed home – Martin Adams

The middle of the 20th century established family expectations for a generation. The nation had just participated in two world wars and people were getting back on their feet. Women no longer had to work while their husbands were across the globe fighting in battles, and it seemed like a time to really get settled with the ultimate goal: a stable family life.

Those raised in that generation saw the nuclear family as the norm: a stay-at-home mother, a working father, and several children at home. Men worked hard during the day and returned to their loving family in the evening, to be greeted by a loving wife with a kiss on the cheek and the smell of a hot dinner waiting for them on the stove. Children were called in from playing outside to join for a family dinner, and then they were sent off to bed with a kiss on the forehead from mother and father.

Denton, America – Texan sunset – Monica Bourgeau

This idyllic scene is not foreign to many people in America, especially the older generation. However, it is this way of life that has become impossible for many younger Americans to uphold. With a rise in the cost of living and an inadequate rise in wages, it has become incredibly impractical for many families to survive on only one income. This leads to many mothers being taken away from the home to join the workforce to simply make ends’ meet. Those families that are trying to partake in the traditional family life of years gone by have found that it is an unfeasible goal, simply because of finances.

This, however, only considers those families that have followed the traditional family path. But it is important to recognize that there is a growing number of people who do not wish to partake in that way of life to begin with. Consider for a moment the fact that the current younger generations are not getting married or seeking family life at all. This can again be connected to the lack of financial stability that is available. Many Millennials, for example, cite the fact that they cannot in good conscience start a family when they are struggling to feed themselves from day to day.

Los Angeles, America – Venice Beach – Joe Cooke

Aside from financial concerns, many young people are shunning traditional family values due to ethical reasons. The planet’s population is growing immensely, far faster than the earth can provide resources. With the impending doom that comes along with climate change, it seems unreasonable to bring in more human beings to use up the earth’s limited resources when we are finding it difficult to make sure everyone is taken care of as it is. In the United States especially, many young people are refusing to get married and start families as long as the environment is in danger from overuse and outright abuse.

New York, America – Preparing – Sai De Silva

On the other hand, there are still many people who are focused and able to get married and have a family that more closely resembles that of “the good old days.” However, these families do have some substantial differences that, while they appear ideal to many nowadays, would make the nuclear family of the 50s and 60s cringe.

With the LGBTQ movement gaining traction in recent years, and legality in America, many gay and lesbian couples are able to realize their dream of becoming parents and having a home life similar to that of their parents and grandparents. With the popularity of adoption, sperm and egg donors, and surrogacy, couples who are not able to biologically create children together may still participate in the conventional family life made popular sixty years ago. While they may technically be living the nuclear family dream, because the parents are of the same gender, they face a lot of pushback from older generations that see them as faux families.

Texas, America – Focal point – Ayo Ogunseinde

Adoption itself has been a great help for those wishing to have a family but for some reason are unable, and it isn’t uncommon to see a family that consists of people of all races and backgrounds. Additionally, foster families are also making do with what is available to them to participate in more traditional family values, if they are unable to otherwise for whatever reason.

Batesville, America – In the band – Jordan Whitt

Finally, another way that polarization is presented between the old-fashioned family and the new one, is the growing popularity of chosen single motherhood. Out of necessity or choice, many women are focusing on their careers and their own financial independence. While this is helpful for the women as individuals, it is not conducive to forming a relationship, getting married, and having children. Instead, many women take it upon themselves to decide when to become a mother, whether or not they have a partner in their life. With a sperm donor, the woman may choose IVF or a surrogate to bear the child. While this is seen as empowering to many women, a large number of people in the older generations look on it as a bastardization of the typical family life they were raised with.

New York, America – Rush hour – Nicolai Berntsen

Despite the fact that there are thousands of people who are attempting to replicate the old-fashioned family, it is clear that there will always be some amount of polarization between them and those who have actually lived it. Americans who have experienced the nuclear family when it was the norm may fail to recognize that the country has changed – society, the economy, education, and personal values have all affected the choices people are making in regard to creating their own personal family. And even though many people may continue to insist that their way is right, it has become clear in the last couple of decades that there is no wrong or right way to have a family, and it is ultimately up to those participating in a given family to decide what it should look like.

Talia Stotts

Credits

Snapshot 1: Colorado, America – Alone – Lionello DelPiccolo (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: New York, America – Headed home – Martin Adams (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Denton, America – Texan sunset – Monica Bourgeau (Unsplash)

Snapshot 4: Los Angeles, America – Venice Beach – Joe Cooke (Unsplash)

Snapshot 5: New York, America – Preparing – Sai De Silva (Unsplash)

Snapshot 6: Texas, America – Focal point – Ayo Ogunseinde (Unsplash)

Snapshot 7: Batesville, America – In the band – Jordan Whitt (Unsplash)

Snapshot 8: New York, America – Rush hour – Nicolai Berntsen (Unsplash)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Milivojevic, Stevan. Polarizing LGBTIQ Life – Croatia. November 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Stevan Milivojevic

History of LGBTIQ activism in Croatia

The LGBTIQ community in Croatia became visible, in an informal self-organizing sense, during the 1980s. Along with Slovenia, this made it one of the first countries with LGBTIQ activism in the Balkans region. The legal position of LGBTIQ people in Croatia changed several years before the official activist initiatives, after changes to the constitution were adopted as part of the judicial reforms and the transference of power from the federal level to the republic level. These reforms, which took place in 1974, amended the federal penal code, and by doing so, regulated the decriminalization of same sex relations.

Pula, Croatia – The rock beach – David Boca

Later on, during the Croatian War, most of the LGBTIQ community was part of the feminist, peace and green groups, joining the anti-war campaign. It was during this time, in 1992, that the first formal gay and lesbian group was officially established, called “LIGMA – Lesbian and Gay Action.” Even though, during the war, the group did not have the opportunity to improve the quality of life of the LGBTIQ community, it still achieved significant results by publishing “Speak out,” the first lesbian and gay magazine in Croatia.

In 1998, the parliament of Croatia voted to adopt amendments to the Penal Code. At the request of the government, the age limit for consensual sexual relations was set to 14 years of age, and it was independent of sexual orientation.

Senj, Croatia – At the Adriatic Sea – Daan Koeg

Fast forward a couple of years, and we are in 2002, with big changes having come to Croatia, such as the first Pride Parade held in Zagreb, the Croatian capital. The Pride Parade itself, although considered successful, was met with strong opposition and disapproval by counter protesters. The Pride Parade was described by activists as a true test of Croatian democracy and it really was exactly that. Some would say that the democratic test was passed, considering the fact that the Pride Parade was held, despite opposition. On the other hand, activists were aware that a public event, such as the Pride Parade, would reveal the full scope of hatred and negative attitudes towards the LGBTIQ community in Croatian society. This opposition and the polarized opinions on the LGBTIQ community will later on become a common characteristic in all the countries of the former Yugoslavian region, some of which have needed until 2019 to take first steps such as the Pride Parade.

Yet Croatia, even though its LGBTIQ community was among the first to work together and self-organize, with decades of activist traditions, still hasn’t fully accepted the LGBTIQ community, and sexual orientation and gender identity remain polarizing topics for many Croatians.

Rovinj, Croatia – At Mulini beach – Yurasov Valery

Modern day situation

Not long after 2002 when the first Pride Parade was held in Zagreb, the LGBTIQ community used the receptive political climate and pushed for the first cases of positive legislation. In 2003, same sex couples were recognized in the eyes of the law for the first time, through the adoption of the law on same sex partnerships. The law remained in force for several years, but it had only regulated the economic side of same sex partnerships. Over time, the LGBTIQ community understood its insufficiencies and started working towards the adoption of new legislation, which would make same sex and opposite sex couples more equal before the law.

However, the opposition to the liberal ideas in Croatia once again reared its ugly head, and this time it acted swiftly. Even though most of the country, civil society organizations and LGBTIQ activists expected some form of opposition, no one foresaw the level of organization and mobilization they witnessed.

Zagreb, Croatia – At Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T

A conservative group called “In the Name of the Family,” as it declared in its public statements, recognized that the adoption of a more inclusive same sex partnership law would inevitably end up fully equating same sex partnerships to traditional marriage. This, according to “In the Name of the Family,” was a step too far and needed to be stopped immediately. Therefore, this group initiated a public campaign for a referendum, with the goal of amending the constitution by adding further clarification and defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman.

This would, in the words of the aforementioned group, bring an end to all the effort by LGBTIQ organizations to undermine family values and destroy the sanctity of marriage.

Zagreb, Croatia – Crossing Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T

The initiative was cheered by many within Croatian society, revealing how deep division on the topic goes. On one side, liberal groups advocated for the rejection of the campaign, claiming that a call for a referendum on the topic of human rights represents a violation of human rights in itself. The campaign organized numerous events with the slogan “How would you feel if 4 million people decide on your life.” Even though, opponents of the referendum had the support of numerous public figures, the campaign in favor of it had the backing of the Catholic Church.

Considering the fact that around 90% of Croatians self-identify as Catholics, the leaders of the Catholic Church mobilized numerous activists and made an enormous effort on behalf of the “Yes” group, gathering 750,000 signatures, many more than needed, for the holding of the referendum. In 2014 it took place with the question “Do you agree that marriage is matrimony between a man and a woman.” After the results came in, it was obvious that a far smaller number of people actually participated than expected, but the results were clear: 65% of the participants voted “Yes,” thus marking a major victory for the conservative initiative backed by the Catholic Church.

Dubrovnik, Croatia – The medieval center – Daan Kloeg

Despite the referendum taking place, the Croatian government presented the final draft of the Law on Life Partnerships of Same Sex Couples, which was adopted by a clear majority in the Croatian parliament on July 15, 2014. The law encoded the equal treatment of same sex unions to opposite sex unions in all regards, except the fact that it does not allow the adoption of children in same sex unions.

Both the “Yes” and “No” campaigns have revealed the polarization of opinion among the Croatian people when it comes to the topic of LGBTIQ rights. Although LGBTIQ individuals have been in the Croatian public sphere for three decades, it has become obvious that it is hard to change deeply rooted opinions and attitudes when they are supported by official religious institutions. That is why Croatia and the rest of the Balkan nations still have polarized attitudes on numerous questions, not just the matters of sexual orientation or gender identity. It cannot be said that changes have not happened, they have. But those positive changes will always remain reversible if actions are perceived to be too swift, and polarized attitudes are neglected or not addressed.

Stevan Milivojevic

Credits

Snapshot 1: Split, Croatia – Merging – Alana Harris (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Pula, Croatia – The rock beach – David Boca (Unsplash)

Snapshot 3: Senj, Croatia – At the Adriatic Sea – Daan Koeg (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Rovinj, Croatia – At Mulini beach – Yurasov Valery (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Zagreb, Croatia – At Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Zagreb, Croatia – Crossing Ban Jelacic square – Zdravko T (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Dubrovnik, Croatia – The medieval center – Daan Kloeg (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Esmonde Cole

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

[De Los] Santos, Aura. Social Polarization – Dominican Republic. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Transposing emblem by Aura De Los Santos

The Dominican Republic is a country located in the Caribbean. It has a lot of future potential thanks to a number of resources and a great location. Resources may help stimulate the economy, but tourism is one of our weapons, as our kindness and good treatment of visitors ensures excellent service.

While it is true that many positive aspects of our country can be highlighted, when we dig deeper into the reality that is lived day by day, we can see that the differences and the present struggles people have are quite serious. The differences are very noticeable. Visiting one part of the country and seeing the luxury that surrounds it is impressive, but it is sad to go to one of the poorest neighborhoods and witness the little access they have to basic services that every citizen should enjoy. Here we begin to see a part that many people have little or no knowledge of.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Crossing – Aleksei Denisov

When we talk about social inequality, studies have shown that it has increased in recent years. Why has this happened? Where is all the growth the country has had economically? This is one of the most critical issues that our island faces. The majority of the population only accounts for 7% of the country’s wealth, while 30% belongs to the richest – something very distorted, right? We can see that not enough work is being done to eliminate the disparities that exist and create a more egalitarian society.

It is true that, over the years, few efforts have been made to provide a more satisfactory standard of living for all citizens, but not everything is negative and we must also highlight the good work that has been done in other areas of Dominican society.

Higuey, Dominican Republic – One the street – Mariusz Switulski

In 2013, the Dominican Republic obtained the long-awaited 4% increase in spending for education. Something the people claimed was necessary for the improvement of the education conditions for students. The government has an obligation to provide high-quality education until high school, and this increase was supposed to help with resources and staffing. The increase has also ensured that not only the middle and upper class would benefit from better educational conditions, but every student would gain the right to have good school supplies, classrooms with the equipment every school needs and well-prepared teachers to provide high-quality instruction to the students.

Higuey, Dominican Republic – Coconuts – Mariusz Switulski

Furthermore, not only students benefited from the increase in funding, but also parents and founders of informal businesses, because the creation of a large number of educational facilities in each part of the country, in cities and neighborhoods, helped the private economy establish nearby businesses like coffee shops, computer centers and transport stations; it allowed parents to have greater mobility because the funding also extended to daycare, causing them to have less worries about what to do with their children when they have to work. In this respect, people who did not have the opportunity to go to school also benefited. A plan was created to ensure the literacy of the entire population and to this day it continues to produce good results.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Lifestyle – Aleksei Denisov

Definitely, we can ignore this great work our government has done for the improvement of education, which is a transformative weapon and which everyone is entitled to, without exception. This was achieved thanks to the outcries in a country that seeks improvement for each of its citizens.

This is one of the struggles we have won as a country. Every day we become more aware that we must work to obtain greater benefits so that we can all live a more dignified life. This is one of the many battles that remain for a significant improvement.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Waiting – Aleksei Denisov

Another crucial aspect of inequality present in our Dominican society has been the issue of immigration. Many Dominicans dream of leaving the country and being in places like the United States or some parts of Europe, with the goal of working to send money to their relatives on the island and giving them a better life. The work done by Dominican immigrants is not easy, but they have seen leaving the country as an option to provide greater stability for their family.

These cases are sad. Many have seen that the salary they had in the Dominican Republic did not let them meet the basic needs of their family and forced them to make the hard decision to leave. It’s not easy but someone has to do it.

Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – At the counter – Aleksei Denisov 

Several circumstances have caused people to describe being here as “every man for himself!” Everyone thinks individually and not in a collective way, something that has caused great damage to our country.

So what can be said about the current situation in the Dominican Republic? We still have to grow as citizens and learn to recognize the needs we have as a united country. We must learn to look beyond what is offered first and to determine what our people need. We have to realize that we are the country, and, as we fulfill our role, things will begin to change. Looking for a guilty party is not progress, but working and thinking about the welfare of the country as a whole, not of oneself, will be advantageous for all of us and usher in an age of prosperity.

Aura De Los Santos

Credits

Snapshot 1: Punta Cana, Dominican Republic – Rippled – Tim Mossholder (Unsplash)

Snapshot 2: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Crossing – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 3: Higuey, Dominican Republic – One the street – Mariusz Switulski (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 4: Higuey, Dominican Republic – Coconuts – Mariusz Switulski (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 5: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Lifestyle – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 6: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – Waiting – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Snapshot 7: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic – At the counter – Aleksei Denisov (Shutterstock)

Cinemblem voiceover: Talia Stotts

Locations

Home: www.perypatetik.net

Social: www.facebook.com/Perypatetik

Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel

The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes

Ahmed, Amina. Growing up with Abuse: A Life of Extremes – Lebanon. April 2019.

Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.

Antonyan, Hayk. Polarization Does Not Equal Extreme – Armenia. September 2019.

Awdejuk, Pawel. Pole-arization – Poland. June 2019.

Awuah, Kwasi Amankwah. The Family: Bringing Us Together, Tearing Us Apart – Ghana. November 2019.

Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. What You Sow Does Not Come To Life Unless It Dies – Ukraine. May 2019.

Butt, Kashif. Shrinking Space for Dialog – Pakistan. October 2019.

Cannarella, Daniela. A Past-Present Dicotomia – Italy. June 2019.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero Casas. Balance – Cuba. May 2019.

Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.

Dastan, S.A. Polarization and the Epidemic of Extremity – Turkey. August 2019.

Deiana, Sarah. The Unbearable Weight of Being a Woman – Italy. September 2019.

Escandell, Andrea da Silva. The Illogic of Extremes – Uruguay. May 2019.

Escobar, Christian. Between the Sky and the Earth: Looking for Love – Columbia. October 2019.

Gomez, Javier. The Canyon Inside Us – Argentina. July 2019.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Extremism Is Now the New Hype? – Spain. February 2019.

Husseini, Maha. Bilingual Par Excellence – Canada. August 2019.

Israyelyan, Mania. Polarized Within Ourselves – Armenia. June 2019.

Julber, Lillian. Difficult to Understand – Uruguay. July 2019.

Kanunova, Nigina. Role of Polarization in the Life of an Individual and Society – Tajikistan. July 2019.

López, Virginia Sanmartín. Why Live on an Edge? – Spain. August 2019.

Montano, Osvaldo. Progress in the Face of Polarization – Bolivia. February 2019.

Mwangi, Kenn. Religious Extremity and Exploitation – Kenya. October 2019.

Pavicevic, Nikolina. The Law of Silence – Montenegro. September 2019.

Protić, Aleksandar. Linguistic Balkanization as a Means of Polarization – The Balkans. June 2019.

Ranaldo, Mary. Social Polarization – Italy. April 2019.

Ray, Sanjay Kumar. At the Crossroads – India. August 2019.

Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.

Çakir, Peren. Needing a Sustainable Future in the Midst of Political Polarization – Argentina and Turkey. September 2019.

Sariñana, Alejandra Gonzalez. Student Movements – Mexico. March 2019.

Sekulić, Jelena. The Polarizacija of Serbian Culture – Serbia. June 2019.

Sem, Sebastião. Brandos Costumes – Portugal. July 2019.

Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.

Sevunts, Nane. The Era To Close – Armenia. March 2019.

Tammpuu, Mari. Thoughts of Two Generations – Polar Opposites? – Estonia. November 2019.

Skobic, Alexandar. The Loss of Identity – The Balkans. April 2019.

Sitorus, Rina. Polarization in Politics: All a Cebong or Kampret – Indonesia. March 2019.

Spirito, Julieta. A Thought about Polarized Insecurity – Argentina. April 2019.

Valenzuela, Monica. Adults and Children – Peru. April 2019.

Vuka. Extreme Immunity to Functional Tax and Judicial System – Serbia. March 2019

Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.

Williams, Jazz Carl. Unfinished Episodes – Spain. May 2019.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Feminism – Russia. August 2019.

Forthcoming

CW 47 – Montenegro – Nikolina Pavicevic
CW 48 – America – Talia Stotts
CW 49 – Philippines – Kristian Uusitalo
CW 50 – Italy – Martha Corzo
CW 51 – Hungary – Zoltan Monar
CW 52 – Syria/UAE/Egypt – Ahmed Ibrahim
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed