Transposing emblem by Martha Corzo Castañeda

At present here, in Lima, both women and men, young and middle-aged, are uncertain about their jobs.

Very few people in search of a job in our capital have found a position over the last two years, among them, many recent graduates, often with good grades.

Pacachamac Lima, Peru – Incas and a suburb

In previous years, when our country was highly regarded internationally, several Chilean companies invested in various areas here. But they do not want to risk their capital any more and over the last few years have not been good for us economically, with some of them doubting whether they will continue in 2019. If they do not, unemployment will rise.

A few years ago, there was a time when many international companies fired a large percentage of their staff worldwide due to the crises in Europe and the United States. Some of the employees that have remained are Peruvians, while others departed. Yes, the truth is that Peru exports its best talent, the reason being that we do not pay Peruvians what they can earn abroad.

Lima, Peru – Bridge of Sighs

Labor situation for women and men

Women are the ones who have more problems when looking for a job. And many of them have trouble finding a secure position so they must accept part-time or informal jobs in areas for non-professionals.

In recent decades, many women who are now looking for a job were hired for a position when they were young and did not have babies. However, afterwards, many of them became pregnant. First, they had one, after a relatively short time they had another, and some of them, in an unguarded moment, had a third. Consequently, they had to decide which activity they would prefer, and, if they chose to bet on the “mother” work, the sad consequence was that they lost their job.

These are some of the women that are now looking for a position. If they return to work, they must have a live-in housemaid to take care of their children, so they need higher salaries. As a result, such employees earn a high salary today, but these jobs are very hard to find in Lima. In some cases, women work only to pay these extra expenses related to children because by working they feel more appreciated.

Lima, Peru – At the music fountain

In the United States, by contrast, the women working as secretaries may leave their jobs and slip back into them at the drop of a hat by calling their bosses when their children reach the age of nursery school, of course if their record is good as an employee.

As you can see, it is very difficult for women to go back to work: bosses think they will be absent too often, and since they do not want this, they do not welcome mothers with small children. When the children grow up, the problem is that the women are not as young as the girls the bosses are looking for to occupy the available positions, especially for some jobs.

In this and other cases, age is a very important factor for employers. Sometimes the most important thing besides physical appearance. There is a maximum age, even for professionals, with experience and qualifications being secondary. You may think that starting a business, especially for the ones that have studied administration-related careers would be a solution, but the likelihood of success in this area is low for women at this moment here in Lima. Why? You need capital. And most of them do not have it (that is one of the reasons, if not the most important one for why they are looking for a job). Even if they manage to find capital, their business would be small, and the big ones would ¨eat¨ it.

Huaraz, Peru – At the street market

Still, many women try this route repeatedly, until none of the people to whom they turn (generally their parents) has money to risk.

The unfair situation for women has also extended beyond this.

On November 15, 2017, Congress approved a Labor Regulation “that forbids wage discrimination between men and women. This standard establishes that the entities offering jobs must guarantee equal terms between men and women in their staff selection processes as well as in pay packages.The norm also requires that in the work training programs 50% of the participants must be women. It says additionally that the entity offering the job must assure that sexual harassment is prevented.1 We are having many problems with this at the present time in our city.

We want this labor law to be obeyed, but legal experts think that in some cases it will be impossible for the companies to comply.

We need the Peruvian authorities to adopt another law forbidding employers from asking job-seekers about their age, especially women. On the other hand, men’s occupational situation is better here, since a higher percentage of men have a job. Nonetheless, it is also uncertain as many of them are not sure about the security of their positions, for the reasons discussed below.

Lima, Peru – On the street

Reasons for job insecurity

The disasters in several Peruvian provinces as well as the corruption scandal in which the troublemaker has been Odebrecht, a Brazilian construction company, have contributed to the high rate of unemployment existing in our country.

According to the admissions of the Brazilian ex-CEO, Marcelo Odebrecht, who has come to an agreement on cooperating with the Peruvian authorities, “the company had a policy of financing presidential candidates with a chance of winning, the purpose being that if one of them acceded to power, the construction company would have an open invitation to undertake projects in the country.”2

All that this ex-CEO has declared in court is being investigated, and, meanwhile, the public projects that they were handling in our country have stopped. Unfortunately, these were the most important public projects. But Odebrecht did not carry out its projects alone; it had joint ventures with Peruvian construction companies, forming groups for the execution of such public projects.

Lima, Peru – On the steps

The ex-CEO has declared that the person who was in direct contact with their Peruvian authorities was Jorge Barata, the Odebrecht Branch Manager for Peru. Now, Barata may also come to an agreement on cooperating with the Peruvian investigators. On December 2nd, he confessed to the way in which they operated to win the tender contract for the South Interoceanic Highway public works project. He said that $20 million was given to Alejandro Toledo, the Peruvian ex-President who was governing Peru at that time, as a bribe to obtain the winning bid. He added that, after a year, when their associated companies received their earnings, each made a “contribution.”

The problem for us is that these companies provide jobs for thousands of Peruvians, and since December 4, their five business owners are in pre-trial detention.

Fortunately, the reconstruction following the disasters in several Peruvian provinces has made this year a little better for the companies engaged in construction related fields, for example bathroom fittings and sanitary products. However, the reconstruction is going slowly because a few years ago there was a change in the governance structure and it was rushed, the consequence being that the governors chosen for each region have not been very well selected and many of them have fallen prey to corruption.

Taquile Island, Puno, Peru – Close up 

Since nothing has been done in almost a year, the person leading the reconstruction was recently replaced, although he was a respectable man. He said that he has been preparing the list of affected inhabitants and planning the reconstruction of the homes and community services damaged by the disasters, but, a whole year or more had passed and actual work had not begun.

In short, there is work in Lima and Peru in general, but it is limited, problematic for women and many of the positions are for unskilled labor or technicians.

It is all very uncertain.

Martha Corzo Castañeda

Works cited

1 El Comercio “Sanción contra la Violencia.” November 16, 2017.

2 Cronica Viva. “Odebrecht afirma que financió campaña de Keiko.” November 10, 2017.


Photo 1: Lima, Peru – On the coast – alessandro pinto

Photo 2: Pacachamac Lima, Peru – Incas and a suburb – Alice Nerr

Photo 3: Lima, Peru – Bridge of Sighs – alessandro pinto

Photo 4: Lima, Peru – At the music fountain – Pixie.M

Photo 5: Huaraz, Peru – At the street market – Andrushko Galyna

Photo 6: Lima, Peru – On the street – Studio 4-a

Photo 7: Lima, Peru – On the steps – Studio-4a

Photo 8: Taquile Island, Puno, Peru – Close up – Eteri


Real: Postcard emblems in The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed and The Anthology of Global Instability Transposed on display at 1080


Social: Cinemblem (cine emblem) at

The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed

Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.

Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.

Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.

Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.

Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.

Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.


Translators and writers in Uruguay, Greece, Italy, Czech Republic, Cuba, Paraguay, Argentina, Germany, Romania, Spain, America, Britain, and more…

The Anthology of Global Instability Transposed

Table of contents for The Archive of Global Instability Transposed at and full text can be found at

Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.

Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.

Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.

Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.

Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.

Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.

Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.

Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.

Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.

Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.

Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.

D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.

Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.

Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.

Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.

Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.

Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.

Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.

Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.

Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.

Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.

Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.

Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.

Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.

Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.

Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.

Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.

Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.

Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.

Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.

Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.

Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.

Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.

MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.

Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.

McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.

Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.

Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.

Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.

Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.

Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.

Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.

Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.

Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.

Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.

Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.

Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.

Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.

Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.

Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.

Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.

Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017

Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.

Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.

Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.

Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.

Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.

Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.

Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.

Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.

Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.

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