Of all the benefactors of mankind, my favorite is Prometheus. His audacity provoked the wrath of Zeus when he discovered that Prometheus had given fire to the human race. The latter feared that our mortal species could not defend against the attack of beasts in an inhospitable world without a basic element of survival. Thanks to fire, humans were inventing increasingly precise and sophisticated tools at the same time that their body and brain evolved and created the first cultural forms along with the appearance of language.1 However, Zeus seemed to know that if a mortal race could take possession of technological development, that mortal race would end up stripping the gods of Olympus of their power over the world and would take their place in the form of totalitarianism. Several centuries later, Nietzsche’s Zarathustra shouted to the crowd gathered in the market that God had died and that they should not cling to supernatural hopes. He announced the arrival of a chaotic and uncertain time that humans would have to face by changing the meaning of their own actions on earth.2
|Barcelona, Spain – Sagrada Familia – Ruben dos Santos|
When you turn on a television set, it is not difficult to understand why the crowd does not yet get to decode Nietzsche’s metaphors. The mass media are part of the premise that we are all made equal and that we all want the same thing. An elite accumulates a certain economic power, often greater than the GDP of a whole nation, and aspires to dominate the meaning of life of the masses. Most media offer low quality information produced by a corporate elite. Entire populations have disappeared, and governments have been demolished in the name of humanitarianism and democracy since the origin of the concept of “humanitarian war.” That information is provided in a NATO member country and we finance that war by paying our taxes. The collateral civil victims of the wars, the waves of refugees, the tortured and the sex slaves on our televisions – if they appear – are very distant. In that way, it is not easy to establish a direct relationship between their misfortunes and our tax contribution to the growing budgets of the Ministry of Defense of a NATO member country.
|Malaga, Spain – At work – No-Mad|
How did we get here? The time of social democratic states has passed. We woke up one morning hearing that public sector debt was increasing and that the accounts were not in balance any more. The Eastern front had fallen, and Western states no longer needed to counterbalance the Soviet system. Although I suspect that the foundations of our modern age are deeper and began to settle when the Western man based the justification for dominating the world on the certainty of their own intellectual capacity (thinking, measurement or control). Cogito ergo sum. After the death of the last Western God and with confidence in the foundation of their own existence, the West has been extinguishing innumerable populations, languages, worldviews, gods, as their will to power extends across the planet. Following human and cultural genocides, the surviving non-Western population is assimilated as a minority and integrated into the imbalance of a global trading system.
|Valencia, Spain – Near the park – Mimohe|
“The bigger your market, Montag, the less you handle controversy, remember that!”, says Beatty, ironically a well-read man, in Fahrenheit 451 to explain that censorship happened because the people allowed it.3 The current entertainment and social networking industry occupies most of the free time of the masses. Old spatial frontiers have disappeared for most of the physical and digital goods, and the time for reflection has been occupied by an accelerated consumption of prefabricated fiction, oblivious to melancholy and concern. Life accelerates. States and nations have lost their military, cultural, economic and social sovereignty. Fierce football leagues, sado-pornography and immediate pleasure dominate everything after work to liberate the masses from their internal tensions in a semi-forced submission because they do not find other ways to escape. The nostalgic ones of the previous war order – whose only logic is the polarity of “us or them” – are shocked by the growing social and economic uncertainty. The political extreme right is spreading through the central and peripheral countries of the West. In Spain, while state media are distracting their audience from any manifestation of the extreme right, the main central political parties are delegitimizing the critical voices and justifying the suppression of more elemental human rights regarding political prisoners and the persecution of freedom of expression in the name of, ironically, judicial independence and separation of powers.
|Malaga, Spain – Connected – No-Mad|
How can a person with intellectual, environmental, social, political concerns, a creative person or a person endowed with excessive honesty survive in a totalitarian time without gods? Living according to a critical idea that opposes structures of abusive power does not bring any certainty to our very existence. Every year, the number of environmental activists murdered worldwide by paramilitary forces is growing and more than half are from Latin America. Dozens of languages disappear throughout the world each year.
|Valencia, Spain – Walking down the street – Mimohe|
To follow Nietzsche’s recommendations and change the meaning of our actions in life, we would need three things, as Professor Faber explains to Montag, in Ray Bradbury’s novel: quality information, free time to reflect, and the right to undertake actions based on our reflections.4 We can use our free time to think about how to create ways of life that are less dependent on the natural resources of countries at the periphery of our systems, such as permaculture, bioconstruction, renewable energies and the cultivation of a large part of our food in small orchards.
|La Orotava, Spain – On the day of Corpus Christi|
Arts, philosophy, literature and music offer various aspects of the same issue. Like an earthquake, they can cause the ground to move under our feet, making us doubt any certainty we assumed as common sense and possibly a thought acquired through the continuous bombardment of the media. They who seek freedom, seek to know the world. Most of it is contained in books, especially those of the past. Personally, a decade ago, I found a couple of books that allowed me to understand politics and ethics beyond some codes imposed by the logic of domination and war: Politics of Friendship by Jacques Derrida5 and Otherwise of Being, or Beyond Essence by Emmanuel Lévinas.6 Respecting the emptiness in the old place that was occupied by gods allows us to reflect again on the classic question of the limits of our knowledge and understand our identity as an affirmation of the other, of the different, of those who are not like me and thanks to whom I can be defined. From the failed Nietzsche, we get the possibility of understanding relations in the world like some Greek thinkers did before Plato, when the gods had been dead for a short time and humans had not yet dared to take their place. At that time, philosophy had just displaced myths as a way to understand the world, and the immense freedom of thought was enjoyable.
1 See André Leroi-Gourhan, Le Gest et la Parole. Technique et langage, Éditions Albin Michel, 1964.
2 Friedrich Nietzsche, Also sprach Zarathustra, 1883.
3.Ray Bradbury, Farenheit 451, 1953.
4 Ray Bradbury, op.cit.
5 Jacques Derrida, Politics of Friendship, 1997.
6 Emmanuel Lévinas, Autrement qu’être ou au-delà de l’essence, 1974.
Photo 1: Loiu, Spain – Bilbau airport – Bernard Hermant (Unsplash)
Photo 2: Barcelona, Spain – Sagrada Familia – Ruben dos Santos (Unsplash)
Photo 3: Malaga, Spain – At work – No-Mad-1280×720 (Shutterstock)
Photo 4: Valencia, Spain – Near the park – Mimohe (Shutterstock)
Photo 5: Malaga, Spain – Connected – No-Mad (Shutterstock)
Photo 6: Valencia, Spain – Walking down the street – Mimohe (Shutterstock)
Photo 7: La Orotava, Spain – On the day of Corpus Christi – GranTotufo
Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel
The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed
Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.
Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.
Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.
Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.
Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.
Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.
Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.
Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.
Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.
Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.
Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018
Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018
Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.
Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018
Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.
Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.
Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.
Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.
Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018
Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.
Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.
Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.
Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.
Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.
Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.
Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.
Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.
Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.
Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.
Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.
Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.
Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.
Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018
Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.
Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.
Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.
Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.
Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.
Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.
Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.
Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.
Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.
Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.
Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.
Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.
Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.
Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.
Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.
Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.
Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.
Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.
Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.
The Anthology of Global Instability
Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.
Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.
Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.
Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.
Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.
Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.
Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.
Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.
Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.
Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.
Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.
D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.
Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.
Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.
Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.
Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.
Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.
Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.
Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.
Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.
Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.
Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.
Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.
Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.
Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.
Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.
Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.
Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.
Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.
Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.
Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.
Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.
Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.
Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.
MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.
Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.
McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.
Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.
Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.
Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.
Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.
Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.
Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.
Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.
Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.
Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.
Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.
Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.
Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.
Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.
Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.
Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.
Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017
Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.
Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.
Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.
Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.
Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.
Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.
Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.
Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.
Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.
CW 2 – Brazil – Joana Alencar
CW 3 – Venezuela – Veronica Cordido
CW 4 – South America – Alejandra Baccion
CW 5 – Germany and Romania – Andreea Sepi
CW 6 – South Africa – Sarah Leah Pimentel
CW 7 – Bolivia – Osvaldo Montano
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed