It has been 9 years since Bolivia’s Constitutional Referendum was held in 2009. This event made us first perceive the political polarization in the country and revealed sharp differences between the regions, highlighting a country divided by social class, region and political party. These dynamics, however, are due more to current than historical differences between the regions. Rural people who identify as indigenous have backed the presidency of Evo Morales in the departments of La Paz, Oruro and Potosí, while people in the rest of the country make up the opposition.
When making a decision, society reveals the bias that exists in the different social classes. In the countryside there is almost unconditional support for Evo Morales; the government support in rural areas is strengthened by all the spending that has benefited them: the construction of hospitals, schools, markets, roads and other facilities. Furthermore, the party is connected with and has supported the coca leaf producers. On the other hand, in the cities, one feels opposition to the government for racial and political motives. The history of blockades and social upheaval with which their political life began spurs this sentiment, along with the sale of strategic government companies to foreign corporations, such as National Security, whether for laudable reasons or not.
|La Paz, Boliva – The cityscape – Tobias Jelskov|
The government of Evo Morales has achieved profound changes in the current environment of Bolivia, despite the global crisis in 2008, which hardly affected the country. The re-negotiation of the price of gas at that time along with cuts in government spending and salaries of government employees have generated growth and surpluses never seen before in the country. On the contrary, investment errors have given the opposition the opportunity to raise failures as a political flag.
The opposition’s political strategy to use the media and internet in 2016 changed the public’s general feeling about the presidency of Evo Morales, distorting his mandate and presenting personal problems. This created uncertainty and also brought to light deeper problems of corruption and theft in his administration. As a result, the ruling party lost popular support, and people’s general opinion of the administration deteriorated, undermining the president’s image.
|Copocabana, Bolivia – Tucked in – Sunny Upadhyay|
The political reality in Bolivia has revealed a divided opposition without a clear leader, where self-interests have distorted the main figures in the political parties. They have failed to present a clear proposal or focus on pointing out the errors of Evo Morales’s government, have provided poor information to the public and generated uncertainty.
This situation entails a murky future, where the ruling party and the opposition seek to distort each other’s positions and appeal to the citizen’s feelings, provoking them to take one side or the other without knowing the achievements or virtues. This reflects a culture with a great need for improvement, as all the political participants largely show that they put personal gains ahead of public services. A lot of this conflict has moved from the streets to the indomitable social networks.
|La Paz, Bolivia – On the street – NiarKrad|
There are those who do not recognize that we are experiencing a moment of polarization in Bolivia. This failure to understand the dynamics is superficial and does not take into account that we polarize from the moment we do not accept the values of the other side. This is seen more and more in the divided Bolivia of today, where there are only two options: Evo and not-Evo. This polarization can even reach the point of hatred and the desire to impose one’s views without being sensitive to the situation of the country.
These differences have revealed negative feelings about other social classes, creating tension that many hope will be resolved in the upcoming elections, either with the end of the Evo Morales government or his re-election. On the other hand, as a country, we hope and want to believe that the calm before the storm will continue, however many are certain that this will not be the case in Bolivia, due to the sole objective that each of us has to impose our own idea of what is right.
|Santa Cruz, Bolivia – On the street – jjspring|
The political uncertainty in Bolivia has generated a polarized environment, some sure that the presidency of Evo Morales will end in the next elections, either because it was determined in a referendum or because the constitution prohibits another term. However, others believe that Morales’s ability to authorize appointments to the Constitutional Court and amendments to the law governing political parties will allow him to run again. Both the opposition and the ruling party seek to damage the image of the other, revealing their true character in their actions. The opposition has been very vocal about political persecution, with any person who presents himself as a possible candidate opposed to Evo Morales being subjected to this persecution.
|Samaipata, Bolivia – Looking – Pedro Henrique Santos|
All these events bring us to the moment where we have to decide, sensing the extremism, without an analysis of the proposals of each party and the reality of the administration. We are just simply taking sides politically. Many people who seek to influence this feeling at all costs use traditional media and the internet, without hesitating to lie, falsify or hide information to change people’s personal opinion.
The future of Bolivia feels politically uncertain, but it is nothing like the past which was even more complex. Nowadays the power of the “memes”, depicting the partial and biased information of the public players, has shown that personal benefits take precedence over the public good in all social and political areas. The feeling of having to decide which is the least corrupt party leaves an aftertaste of conformity.
|Uyuni, Bolivia – Silhouettes – Matan Levanon|
It is clear that Bolivia as a country and its population has grown in the face of adversity and has changed for the better. Our culture continues to move towards a future where technology, social networks and tradition come together, hopefully with less polarization.
Photo 1: Uyuni, Bolivia – Salt flat – Matan Levanon (Unsplash)
Photo 2: La Paz, Bolivia – The cityscape at night – Geziel Esteban (Unsplash)
Photo 3: La Paz, Boliva – The cityscape – Tobias Jelskov (Unsplash)
Photo 4: Copocabana, Bolivia – Tucked in – Sunny Upadhyay (Unsplash)
Photo 5: La Paz, Bolivia – On the street – NiarKrad (Shutterstock)
Photo 6: Santa Cruz, Bolivia – On the street – jjspring (Shutterstock)
Photo 7: Samaipata, Bolivia – Looking – Pedro Henrique Santos (Unsplash)
Photo 8: Uyuni, Bolivia – Silhouettes – Matan Levanon (Unsplash)
Cinemblem: Perypatetik youtube channel
The Syncretion of Polarization and Extremes
Alencar, Joana. Lack of Social Trust – Brazil. January 2019.
Baccino, Alejandra. Polarization within Ourselves – South America. January 2019.
Cordido, Veronica. Hanging by Extremes – Venezuela. January 2019.
Romano, Mavi. Censorship and Cultural Survival in a World without Gods – Spain. January 2019.
Sepi, Andreea. A World of Victims and Perpetrators? – Germany and Romania. February 2019.
Wallis, Toni. Walls and Resettlement – South Africa and Angola. February 2019.
The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed
Alencar, Joana. Uncertainty – Our Spirit – Brazil. November 2018.
Awdejuk, Pawel. Niepewność – The Road to Freedom – Poland. July 2018.
Bell, Sarah. The Bushfire Drive – Australia. July 2018.
Bondarenko, Evgeny. Twenty Plus Years. August 2018.
Cajoto, Christina. The Trajectory of Life – España. August 2018.
Castañeda, Martha Corzo. Worried Workers – Peru. February 2018.
Cooleridge, Tweeney. Uncertainty in the Abstract – Slovakia. March 2018.
Cordido, Veronica. The Crib of Uncertainty – Venezuela. January 2018.
Dastan, S.A. Uncertain Waters – Turkey. March 2019.
Deiana, Sara. The Dark Side of Perfection. September 2018.
Electra P. Aβεβαιότητα: The Enemy of Romantic Relationships – Greece. February 2018
Escandell, Andrea da Silva. Compromise – Uruguay. March 2018
Fischer, Kristin. Talking about Cancer – Germany. September 2018.
Gómez, Javier. Uncharted Bliss. October 2018
Goumiri, Abdennour. Uncertainty Is All There Is – France. February 2018.
Guerrero, Marilin. Crossing the Uncertain Path of Life – Cuba. February 2018.
Guillot, Iuliana. Preparing for Change – Romania. June 2018.
Huihao, Mu. Going the Uncertain Way. July 2017.
Husaini, Maha. Inshallah – Jordan. December 2018
Israyelyan, Mania. 30 Years of Anoroshutyun – Armenia. December 2018.
Julber, Lillian. What Will Tomorrow Bring? – Chile. July 2018.
Kanunova, Nigina. Metamorphoses in Modern Life. June 2018.
Kingsley, Anastasia. Expect the Unexpected. November 2018.
Konbaz, Rahaf. So You Say You Want A Revolution – Syria. March 2018.
Korneeva, Kate. One We – Russia. April 2018.
Krnceska, Sofija. No Name Country – Macedonia. May 2018.
Lassa, Verónica. The Old Eastern Books of Uncertainty – Argentina. May 2018.
Lozano, Gabriela. El cuchillo de la incertidumbre : Piercing Uncertainty – México. January 2018.
Marti, Sol. A Thought Falling – Spain and Germany. December 2018.
Pang, Lian. Now or Later? October 2018.
Phelps, Jade. Healing Journey Pulls Us Apart – America. June 2018.
Protić, Aleksandar. Environmental Uncertainty. August 2018.
Romano, Mavi. An Uncertain Democracy – Spain. April 2018
Ranaldo, Mary. Incerto or Flexible: Italia and UK. March 2018.
Ray, Sanjay Kumar. Once upon a Time in a Queue – India. November 2018.
Çakır, Peren. Building a Future in Times of Uncertainty – Argentina and Turkey. May 2018.
Sanmartín, Virginia. Qué Será, Será – Spain. June 2018.
Samir, Ahmed. Uncertainty in Personal Life. January 2018.
Sariñana, Alejandra González. A Brighter Future? – Mexico. December 2018.
Skobic, Aleksandar. Genetic Code Name: Unique – Bosnia and Herzegovina. December 2018.
Sekulić, Jelena. Nesigurnost of the Past, Present and Future – Serbia. June 2018.
Sem, Sebastião. Vagrant Poets. September 2018.
Sepi, Andreea. Uncertainties Galore – Germany. April 2018.
Sevunts, Nane. From Uncertainty to Newness. November 2018.
Sitorus, Rina. When Uncertainty Reaches the Land of Certainty – Indonesia and the Netherlands. May 2018.
Trojnar, Kamila. Ephemeral. October 2018.
Quintero, Jonay. The Fear of Not Knowing – España. January 2018.
Uberti, Alejandra Baccino. Adventure – Uruguay. September 2018.
Vuka. Lacking Uncertainty in Political Culture – Serbia. April 2018.
Wallis, Toni. Living for Today – South Africa. October 2018.
Younes, Ghadir. Economic Uncertainty in Life – Lebanon. Part 38.
Zakharova, Anastasiya. LGBQT – Russia. August 2018.
The Anthology of Global Instability
Alvisi, Andrea. Political and Social Instability: The Brexit Mess. May 2017.
Bahras. Unstable Air Pollution – Unstable Solutions: Mongolia. June 2017.
Bichen, Svetlana Novoselova. Mental and Cultural Instability: Russia and Turkey. February 2017.
Bondarenko, Evgeny. Hybrid War: Ukraine. December 2018.
Borghi, Silvana Renée. Living in Inestabilidad. September 2017.
Caetano, Raphael. Instabilidade emocional: Brazil. February 2017.
Çakır, Peren. On the Road in Search of Stability: Argentina and Turkey. June 2017.
Casas, Marilin Guerrero. Emotional Estabilidad: The Key To a Happy Life – Cuba. December 2017.
Charles-Dee. Social Onstabiliteit – South Africa. December 2017.
Cordido, Verónica. Instability, a Stable Reality: Venezuela and America. April 2017.
Dastan, S.A. The Stability of Instability: Turkey and Syria. March 2017.
D’Adam, Anton. Psychosocial Instability in Argentina and America: El granero del mundo and The Manifest Destiny. January 2017.
Delibasheva, Emilia. Political Instability: Electoral Coups in America and Bulgaria. December 2016.
Ellie. Angry Folk: Korea. June 2017.
Farid, Isis Kamal. Stability Is Not An Option – Egypt. August 2017.
Friedrich, Angelika. Introduction: The Emblem of Instability. September 2016.
Fondevik, Vigdis. Unstable Nature: Norway and Denmark. October 2016.
Ghadir, Younes. Political Instability – Lebanon. September 2017.
Gómez, Javier. The Way of No Way – Argentina and the UK. December 2017.
Gotera, Jay R. In Flux Amid Rising Local and Regional Tensions – Philippines. November 2017.
Guillot, Iulianna. Starting and Staying in Instability – Moldova. October 2017.
Gjuzelov, Zoran. The Нестабилност of Transition – Macedonia. November 2017.
Halimi, Sophia. Modern Instabilité: Youth and Employment in France and China. March 2017.
Hernandez, Jonay Quintero. Embracing Instability – Spain. February 2017.
Kelvin, Sera. The Stability in Expecting Emotional Instability: Brazil. April 2017.
Konbaz, Rahaf. The Castaways: On the Verge of Life – Syria. August 2017.
Korneeva, Ekaterina. Instability… or Flexibility? July 2017.
Kreutzer, Karina. Hidden Instabilität – Ecuador and Switzerland. December 2017.
Krnceska, Sofija. Decades of Economic Instability – Macedonia. September 2017.
Kutscher, Karin. Inestabilidad in Interpersonal Relationships – Chile. October 2017.
Larousse, Annabelle. Legal and Emotional Instability in a Transgender Life – Ireland. August 2017.
Larrosa, Mariela. The Very Stable Spanish Instability. April 2017.
Lobos, José. Political Instability: Guatemala. May 2017.
Lozano, Gabriela. Estructuras Inestables: Vignettes of a Contemporary, Not Quite Collapsing Country – Mexico. November 2017.
MacSweeny, Michael. A House on a Hill – America. October 2017.
Mankevich, Tatiana. The Absence of Linguistic Cтабiльнасць: Does the Belarusian Language Have a Future? December 2016.
McGuiness, Matthew. Loving Lady Instability. November 2017.
Meschi, Isabelle. Linguistic Instabilité and Instabilità: France and Italy. November 2016.
Mitra, Ashutosh. The Instability of Change: India. January 2016.
Moussly, Sahar. The Instability of Tyranny: Syria and the Syrian Diaspora. December 2016.
Nastou, Eliza. Psychological Αστάθεια and Inestabilidad during the Economic Crisis: Greece and Spain. December 2016.
Nevosadova, Jirina. Whatever Happens, It Is Experience. May 2017.
Olisthoughts. Stable Instability – Moldova. October 2017.
Partykowska, Natalia. Niestabilność and адсутнасць стабільнасці in the Arts: Polish and Belarusian Theater. January 2017.
Payan, Rodrigo Arenas. Impotence – Venezuela and Columbia. September 2017.
Persio, P.L.F. Social Instabilità and Instabiliteit: Italy and the Netherlands. November 2016.
Pranevich, Liubou. Cultural Instability: Belarus and Poland. March 2017.
Protić, Aleksandar. Demographic Instability: Serbia. July 2017.
Romano, Mavi. Unstable Identities: Ecuador and Europe. October 2016.
Sekulić, Jelena. Нестабилност/Nestabilnost in Language – Serbia. August 2017.
Sepa, Andreea. Instabilitate vs. Stabilität: How Important Are Cultural Differences? – Romania and Germany. September 2017.
Shunit. Economic Instability: Guinea and Gambia. April 2017.
Shalunova, Marina. Language Instability: Russia. June 2017
Sitorus, Rina. Instabilitas Toleransi: Indonesia. May 2017.
Skrypka, Vladyslav. National нестійкість: Ukraine. July 2017.
Staniulis, Justas. Nestabilumas of Gediminas Hill and the Threat to the Symbol of the State: Lithuania. July 2017.
Sousa, Antonia. Social and Economic Instabilidade: Portugal. January 2017.
Vuka. My Intimate Imbalanced Inclination. March 2017.
Walton, Éva. Historical and Psychological Bizonytalanság within Hungarian Culture. January 2017.
Yücel, Sabahattin. The Instability of Turkish Education and its Effect on Culture and Language: Turkey. July 2017.
Zadrożna-Nowak, Amelia. Economic Instability: Poles at Home and the Polish Diaspora. November 2016.
Zakharova, Anastasiya. Instability in Relationships: Russia. April 2017.
CW 8 – Spain – Jonay Quintero Hernandez
CW 9 – Indonesia – Rina Sitorus
CW 10 – Mexico – Alejandra Gonzalez Sarinana
CW 11 – Armenia – Armine Asryan
CW 12 – Serbia – Vuka Mijuskovic
CW 13 – Peru – Monica Valenzuela
CW 14 – Bosnia and Herzegovina – Aleksandar Skobic
CW 15 – Argentina – Julieta Spirito
CW 16 – Italy – Mary Ranaldo
CW 17 – Lebanon – Ghadir Younes
CW 18 – Cuba – Marilin Guerrero Casas
CW 19 – Ukraine – Evgeny Bondarenko
CW 20 – Uruguay – Andrea da Silva Escandell
CW 21 – Spain – Jazz Williams
CW 22 – Armenia – Mania Israyelyan
CW 23 – Poland – Pawel Awdejuk
CW 24 – Balkans – Aleksandar Protic
CW 25 – Italy – Daniela Cannarella
CW 26 – Serbia – Jelena Sekulic
CW 27 – Tajikistan – Nigina Kanunova
CW 28 – Portugal – Nuno Rosalino
CW 29 – Uruguay – Lillian Julber
CW 30 – Argentina – Javier Gomez
Source: The Codex of Uncertainty Transposed